Uwe P. Gielen (St. Francis College) HEALING ON THE ROOF OF THE WORLD, Sunday, 9am
The presentation will focus on various types of healers practicing in Buddhist Ladakh, a society located in NW India. Healers in Ladakh include allopathic doctors trained in India in Western-style medicine, traditional Tibetan doctor-pharmacists (amchi), abbots of local monasteries (rinpoche), "oracles" (shamans or lhapa/lhamo), and astrologers (onpo, tsipa) who may be said to be involved in primary prevention. A considerable amount of "healer shopping" takes place. The presentation will discuss the worldviews and models of illness held by the various practitioners as well as their treatment methods.
Lydia A. Goellner (Pennsylvania State U) THE 5-TO-7 YEAR SHIFT: CREATIVE VERSUS ORGANIZED PLAY, Friday, 10am
A trend over the two decades has been to increasingly involve children in the 5-to-7 year shift in organized play. For childcare settings this increase has been in answer to children's interests and involvement in organized sports. However, organized play has been on the rise in school settings due to an increase in hiring of physical education teachers for younger children, aspirations of better preparing students for competitive sports in later grades, attempts to increasing socialization skills, and to better monitor and prevent the rough-and-tumble play characteristic of creative play. Although young children do show an interest in rule-based organized play, it may not be in their best interest to have such programs thrust upon them. Rather, maximum cognitive and physical development may be achieved in creative play. In addition, participation in ritualistic, organized play of sports may result in abnormal growth in some children.
Jeffrey H. Goldstein (U of Utrecht) APPLIED PLAY RESEARCH, Thursday, 10am
Four ongoing projects involving the use of play are described: 1) At a residential home for the elderly in the Netherlands, we used video games in an effort to delay some of the cognitive and motoric declines associated with aging; 2) We are about to begin a study in the Netherlands using video games as part of a treatment program for people with acute neurological disorders; 3) In China, a program to encourage intergenerational play is designed to improve relations between grandparents and grandchildren; and 4) In Brazil, we will use play and humor to increase resilience among rural children under the age of 10.
Renee Goodstein (St Francis College) AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH TO MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING, Friday, 1-4:45pm
Multicultural psychology is concerned with how cultural context impacts behavior, perception, and experience. Applying multicultural thinking in research and practice is a function of one's definition of and orientation to multicultural work; and yet, the literature on perspectives is sparse. Thus, this paper discusses diverse orientations to multicultural work, and, advocates for an integrative model.
Edith H. Grotberg (U of Alabama - Birmingham) CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND RESILIENCE: THE ROLES OF MASTERY AND CHILD-REARING PRACTICES, Thursday, 8:30 am
Resilience is more easily measured and comparisons made in cross-cultural research when focusing on mastery and on child-rearing practices rather than on academic achievement and dichotomized cultural factors. The International Resilience Research Project (Grotberg 1998) addressed the issue of promoting resilience in children and identifying cultural similarities and differences in facing, overcome, and being strengthened by experiences of adversity. Mastery and child-rearing practices were critical to clarifying the role of culture in the promotion of resilience in children.
Mary Ruth Reynolds (West Georgia U) ANALYSIS OF CHILD-CONSTRUCTED STORIES, Friday, 8:30am
Mary Ruth Reynolds (W. Georgia U) Chair, Play In Schools and Communities, Thursday, 3:15
Michael Heine (U of Calgary) MODERNIZING INUIT TRADTIONAL GAMES: CONSTRUCTING AN "ARTIC SPORTS TRAINING MANUAL", Friday, 8:30 am
Current attempts by Inuit (Eskimo) organizations of Arctic Canada to revive the traditional games culture occur within the context of the now more or less complete penetration into the North of the field of organized recreation and community sport, on the one hand, and televised high performance sport, on the other. The habitual orientation of the teenage population towards the southern Canadian model of sporting practice induces the organizations to model the reconstruction of the traditional form on the organizational principles of the southern practices, that is, on just the model of practice whose influence they seek to diminish. This gives rise to structural tensions in that the value orientations of the traditional form, emphasizing cooperative involvement, are often at variance with the performance orientation and emphasis on competition characteristic of southern Canadian organized sports. The recent completion of a training manual for "Arctic Sports", designed to reproduce the traditional through the rigorous incorporation of modern training methods aimed at the systematic improvement of physical performance brings these tensions out into full relief. The tensions made evident by such modernization of the traditional form during the completion of the training manual will be discussed.
Thomas Hendricks (Elon College) PLAY AND THE POST - MODERN, Thursday, 3:15pm
A current debate in the social sciences focuses on whether social and cultural expression in the latter half of the twentieth century is qualitatively different than that of preceding periods. Whether phrased in economic ( industrial/ post-industrial), social ( modernity/post-modernity), or cultural (modernism/post-modernism) terms, the debate raises profound questions about the possibilities for human experience in our era. This paper attempts to assess the status of play within this debate. After reviewing the contributions of a number of theorists, the author will offer a view that synthesizes that work and argues for the centrality of play to contemporary life. Finally, the limitations of the playful (as a category of human activity) will be addressed.
Laurie J. Hill (Nassau Community College) SEXUAL SIGNIFICANCE OF TATTOOS: A CROSS-CULTURAL EXPLORATION, Saturday 8:30am
Tattooing has been used for thousands of years by many individuals in various cultures. Tattoos can be symbols of protection, sexuality, authority, and self-adornment. Recently the art of tattooing has become a style and fashion statement among American adolescents and young adults. In this research project, the case study method was used to interview tattooed subjects in the United States. The participants in the research came from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. The findings and implications concerning sexual symbolism of tattoos will be presented and discussed.
Robyn M. Holmes (Monmouth U) PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND CHILDREN'S NOTIONS OF PLAY IN HONG KONG AND THE UNITED STATES , Friday, 1pm
Current studies and definitions of play have focused primarily on Western societies and individuals. This study examined parental attitudes about playfulness and childrens' notions of play in two cultures, Hong Kong and the United States, based on two samples of 9 -10 year -old children, and 34 parents from Hong Kong and 12 parents from the United States. All children completed a three page questionnaire that contained open-ended questions on play and work, and parents completed a modified version of Barnett's "Children's Playfulness Scale." Preliminary results suggest that (1) parents from both cultures view play as important to their children's development and agree upon specific items that are included in the concept of playfulness, but that cultural ideology affects parental attitudes toward playfulness; and (2) children from both cultures view play as an activity that is fun, enjoyable, the antithesis of work, and an activity one can do with a toy or friend. However, no Hong Kong child noted that play was a time where one had the freedom to do whatever one wanted, and the Hong Kong sample noted more differences between play at home and at school.
Linda Hughes (U of Delaware), Play and Socialization Symposium, Friday, 10am
Soofia K. Hussain (Nassau Community College, SUNY) PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE KAMA SUTRA, Saturday 8:30am
Kama Sutra., the ancient Sanskrit classic, is a mature, responsible study of human eroticism that advocates sexuality of the highest order, It is a sexuality that culminates not only in supreme sensual gratification but also in spiritual bliss. Yet the work is marked by a scientific tone of objectivity and detachment. Most important, Kama Sutra grants women equal status with men. In fact, far from being sexual objects, women receive full recognition of their independent sexuality, the fulfillment of which is fully as valid as men's. Sexual exploration and indulgence are encouraged in an atmosphere of openness and experimentation. Nor is the gratification of women merely physical, Their fulfillment encompasses many other dimensions also, such as aesthetic, emotional and spiritual. But in order for a woman to realize such an all-round gratification, she must herself possess several talents of a diverse nature. Obviously, this approach is in marked contrast to many other religious and cultural traditions where sexuality is regarded as a necessary evil and is barely tolerated. Kama Sutra celebrates human sexuality as perhaps no other world classic does.
Olga S. Jarrett (Georgia State U) PLAYGROUND BEHAVIOR: AN OBSERVATIONAL SCHEME FOR TEACHERS, Thursday, 3:15pm
Research on recess behavior indicates that children's interactions and play patterns can reveal much about the social abilities and interests of individual children as well as patterns if interaction within a group. Such information can be very useful to teachers. This paper presents a simple coding scheme developed with two fourth-grade classes in a large southern city. Using two-minute observation intervals, the teacher can identify incidents of fighting, chasing, rough and tumble play, playing on the playground equipment, talking in groups, children's games, and solitary behavior. They can identify solitary children and the extent of cross-gender and cross-ethnic interactions. This paper will present results of observations with these two classes and make suggestions on how teachers can use playground information.
James E. Johnson (Pennsylvania State U) PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S CONCEPTIONS OF 'REAL' PLAY AND SCHOOL PLAY AS REVEALED THROUGH DRAWINGS AND CLASSIFICATION ACTIVITIES, Friday, 1pm
Evidence exists suggesting that in addition to children's cognitive maturity, the nature of the early childhood program, educational philosophy and curricular play model in which children are enrolled may influence young children's conceptions of work and play activities. Child interviews using picture classification and drawing were structured to generate a four-point scale assessing the extent to which preschoolers viewed various activities as work, play or both work and play, and whether children could reliably distinguish between their own natural or real play and educational or teacher-determined instrumental play at school. Results are presented in relation to children's age and gender and in relation to information about the children's early childhood educational programs' as obtained from structured teacher interviews and classroom inventories. Implications for theory construction, further research and practical application in the field of early childhood education are discussed.
James E. Johnson (Pennsylvania State U), The Adult Role in Young Children's Play Panel, Friday, 2:30pm
Paula M. Juelich (St. Louis U) and Judith L. Gibbons (St. Louis U) PROFILE OF FREE TIME ACTIVITIES AS VIEWED BY GUATEMALAN ADOLESCENT BOYS, Thursday, 8:30am
97 adolescent boys (ages 11 through 16) attending either public or private schools in Antigua, Guatemala listed free time activities according to the procedure of Sundberg and Tyler (1970). Although leisure activities such as sports, social activities, and listening to music or watching television were mentioned by a majority of the boys, many of the participants also mentioned maintenance activities such as sleeping or eating, performing household chores, and studying. Boys attending public schools were more likely to mention family members whereas boys attending private schools were more likely to mention friends as companions in free time activities.
Robert Kavanaugh (Williams College), Exploring Relations Between Pretend Play and Theory of Mind Symposium,
Robert J. Kleiner (Professor Emeritus, Temple U) New Emerging Paradigns in cross-cultural Research, Friday 1pm
In recent years it has become increasingly evident that the theoretical approaches to cross-cultural research, whether they be behavioristic, cognitive, maturational or what have you, are too simplistic to capture the complexities and intricacies of describing a culture or multiple cultures. In addition, research based on operational similarities in the measuring instruments of any given issue, and simply contrasting performances among differing cultural or subcultural contexts. In the same way, research studies based on identical procedures, manipulations, and measuring instruments all miss the issues of "meaning" and "significance" of the study's contexts. We have also seen the emergence of developing paradigms that seek to overcome the weaknesses of much of cross-cultural research. These paradigms differ in their point of departure but often overlap with each other. They may emphasize the need to consider simultaneously, A) kinds of units of analysis B) the interrelationship of different realities, C) different levels of analysis, D) social and natural levels of analysis, etc. The papers in this symposium are directed toward these issues. They also use theory in different ways than traditionally. (it is hoped that at the 1999 meetings, we will deal with the kind of methods and analytic models that need to be developed or are in the process of being developed.)
Robert J. Kleiner (USA), Tom Sorensen (Norway), Inger Sandanger (Norway), Barnabas I Okeke (Nigeria/USA), Guri Ingebrigtsen (Norway), and Odd Steffen Dalgard (Norway) Migration and Cross-Cultural Research: A New Emerging Perspective, Friday, 1pm
Historically speaking, the approach to the phenomenon of migration has, too often, been one of simplicity and narrow operationalism; such as the division of migration into international and internal movement and the assumption of different phenomena. In addition, we have seen the predominant definition of migration in terms of birthplace; and in recent years in terms of place of socialization. And lastly, we have seen the dissimilarities a) between the culture of origin and the culture of destination, and b) the urban or rural character of the communities of origin and the destination used as explanatory variables for the "problems" experienced by different migrant populations. We have raised, elsewhere, questions about the ensuing oversimplifications, and gave some of the manifestations and ramifications of this process. This paper will continue the task of putting these new ideas into a new more integrated perspective in which migration is no longer a matter of choice in cross-cultural research, but a necessary aspect of such research. In this context, international and internal migration are no longer seen as qualitatively different phenomena. Second, we will show that defining migratory status in terms of place of socialization has made the issue even more complicated. Lastly, we have drawn attention to the necessity to consider the interaction of objective, social, and subjective realities in cross-cultural research. We have seen and will show, selectively, how our research in Norway, USA, Israel, and Nigeria, drawing on this perspective, has led to the realization that migrant groups often manifest their own emergent subcultural behavior which can be very potent in their lives. Thus, the migration phenomenon is a special case of cross-cultural research because it requires us to look at the multicultural influences being exerted on an individual at the same time in his proximal social experience, and the subculture(s) that may emerge.
Susan Hirsch Knox (Hyland Clinic) PLAY AND PLAY STYLES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, Friday, 1pm
This paper presents the results of a study investigating the play behavior and play styles of six preschool children, in order to identify individual play styles and address how the physical and social environments affected play styles. Play style was defined as the preferences, attitudes, approaches, and social reciprocity that children bring to a play situation.
V. K. Kumar (West Chester U) Chair, SCCR Symposium: Alternate Healing Approaches,
Sam Lehman Wilzig (Bar Ilan U) PUBLIC PROTEST, CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE, AND POLITICAL REVOLT: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE JEWISH AND WESTERN POLITICAL TRADITIONS, Friday, 8:30am
Although the Western political tradition is largely based on the Judaeo Christian heritage, there exist significant differences between the "Western" and the Jewish traditions' perspectives (especially regarding the extent of permissible political protest, (dis)obedience and revolt) on two planes: 1) political philosophy; 2) political practice in the only contemporary nation actively basing itself on both traditions-the State of Israel. Regarding "protest", Judaism is more permissive than the Western tradition by demanding the institutionalization of public protest. Regarding civil disobedience, Judaism is less permissive (for "Hobbesian" reasons). Political revolt is virtually forbidden due to the "Covenant" nature of the polity (vs. the West's Social "Contract"). In practice, therefore, Israel has trouble developing a coherent legal approach to these anti institutional practices.
Linda M. Levine (U of Arizona) THE PLAY PATTERNS OF PERSCHOOL CHILDREN WHO ARE DEAF/HARD OF HEARING: ARGUMENTS FOR INCLUSIONARY SETTINGS, Saturday, 8:30am
The absence of sensory input experienced by young children who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HH) creates a significant challenge to the development of the play behaviors necessary for translating the unheard world into meaningful experiences. This presentation, based on recent research findings, will argue that exposure to hearing play partners is an important and essential element for expanding play opportunities, and serves to encourage higher levels of social and cognitive play. Unlike the contentions of prior researchers, the play patterns of the D/HH population have not been found to be deficient, but echo the play of hearing children both quantitatively, and in developmental age progression. Arguments for inclusionary settings for young children who are D/HH can be made on the basis of the significant rise of dramatic play when young children who are D/HH engage in play with hearing children.
Poh-Hwa Liang (Pennsylvania State U) PLAYING WITH COMPUTERS: MULTIPLE CORRELATES OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S COMPUTER PLAY BEHAVIORS , Friday, 1pm
A decade of research on young children and computer technology has examined the effects of computers on language development, social-emotional development, problem-solving skills, creativity, and mathematics. However, little attention has been devoted to issues regarding young children's play with computers. The present study examined the relationships among software, mother-child interaction, mothers' attitudes toward play and computers, children's playfulness, and young children's computer play behaviors. American and Chinese mothers and their children (4-6 years old) participated in the study. Mother-child dyads were observed while using computers. Mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire about their computer and play attitudes after the observations. The Children's Playfulness Scale (CPS) rated by teachers was used to measure children's playfulness. Descriptive and correlational results are presented and discussed. In addition, how American and Chinese mothers interacted with their children while using computers is compared.
Ruth M. Lijtmaer (Kean College) PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH MULTICULTURAL POPULATIONS , Friday, 1pm
Culture is such an embedded part of our lives that the psychotherapeutic setting does not produce a culture-free interaction. Both patient and analyst influence and are influenced by their own cultural background; they are caught in their cultures. The presentation will include the following areas: 1) the impact of different cultures in the therapeutic situation; 2) the effects of language usage, mother tongue versus second language; 3) the therapist's responses in working with patients of another culture. Clinical examples will be provided.
Angeline Lillard (U of Virginia) EXPLORING RELATIONS BETWEEN PRETEND PLAY AND THEORY OF MIND Thursday, 1pm
This symposium will include four presentations of studies examining children's pretend play and their understanding of minds, followed by a discussant's comments. The relationship between pretending and role-taking, egocentrism, and perspective taking received some attention in the 1970's, and it has been given a shot in the arm in recent work on children's theories of mind. Indeed, several investigators have found that children who understand minds earlier also pretend more. This symposium will probe the nature of that relationship.
Angeline Lillard (U of Virginia) PRETENDING, UNDERSTANDING PRETENSE, AND UNDERSTANDING MINDS, Thursday, 1pm Several theorists have hypothesized that pretending leads to understanding minds, because children might actively consider mental representations in pretense. Supporting this, children who pretend more and/or earlier also pass theory of mind tasks earlier. But against it, most children do not appear to understand that pretense involves mental representations. This work examines the possibility that these results are actually consistent, in that the 40% of children, who do appear to understand pretense mental representations early, might also pretend a lot and also understand false belief tasks early. This possibility was supported, although the apparent direction of effects was the opposite of what one might expect, with engaging in pretense appearing to follow understanding it.
Cheng-Hsiung Lu (National Hualien Teachers College) CROSS-CULTURAL DIALOGUE: PARADIGMS OF ADJUSTMENT IN A DIVERSE ENVIRONMENT, Friday, 8:30am
When students leave Taiwan and pursue advanced study in the United States, they lose all the familiar icons of the home country. Instead, what awaits them are different perspectives of culture. Then, there are ways of adjustments into the new environment of American society. This research adopts the qualitative observation and interview methods, explores the cross-cultural situation of the students from Taiwan, and concludes several paradigms of their adjustments into American society.
Grace Masselos (U of Wollongong) and Susan-Lee Walker (U of Wollongong) CHILDREN'S LITERATURE AND PLAYFUL HUMOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATORS IN THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF CHILDREN HAVING FUN AT PLAY, Friday, 8:30am
Social play of young children can be serious business; however, are young children having fun? How is humor being encouraged in early childhood? How can quality children's' literature be used as a source of fun and enjoyment that can be a basis for learning and social interactions during play? This paper will discuss children's literature as a means of following the development of humor and incongruity in preschool children and the implications for early childhood educators in their program planning.
David Matsumoto (San Francisco State U) CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON JUDGEMENT OF EMOTION, Friday, 8:30am
Research that has shown that Asian cultures rate expressions less intensely than non-Asian cultures obtained only single intensity ratings, thus rendering their source ambiguous. In this study, Americans and Japanese rated both external display and internal experience of the posers. As predicted, Americans gave higher ratings to displays, while Japanese gave higher ratings of display relative to experience, not the Japanese who suppressed. These findings contribute to our knowledge of the relationship between culture and emotion, and to the scientific philosophy underlying cross-cultural research.
Alice M. Meckley (Millersville U) and Kimberly Sheaffer (Millersville U) LOOKING AT YOUNG CHILDREN'S SOCIAL PLAY THROUGH TWO DISCIPLINARY LENSES, Saturday, 8:30am
What are the likenesses and differences in how 'play' is viewed, described, and used in research and program implementation in the two disciplines; early childhood education, and early childhood special education? This paper will answer this question through a review of recent play studies and play-related theoretical and curricular discussions in both disciplines. Examined and discussed will be play terminology, play assessment measures, and curricular guidelines related to play. Special emphasis will be placed on social play in early childhood programs. Implications for both researchers and practitioners will focus on important elements of play for all children in early childhood regardless of whether they have developmental disabilities.
Alice M. Meckley (Millersville U) TASP Presidential Comments
Richard L. Meth (U of Connecticut) Relationship between parents' marital satisfaction and childrens' perceptions of acceptance-rejection and psychological adjustment, Saturday, 8:30am
This research examines relationships that cross three generations. First, it examines the relationship between parents' current levels of marital satisfaction and their childhood experiences of acceptance-rejection and control. In other words, if either spouse had been rejected as a child, would both spouses find the marital relationship less satisfying? Or, would only one spouse find the marital relationship less satisfying if either spouse had been rejected as a child? The second part of this research examines the relationship between spouses' current level of marital satisfaction and their children's perception of parental acceptance-rejection, parental control, and psychological adjustment. All of the above relationships are examined for any significant differences that exist according to gender, race, and social class.
Leigh Minturn (U of Colorado, Boulder) THE RELATIVE ANTIQUITY OF WEAVING AND METALLURGY, Friday, 8:30am
Many archeologists think that the origins of weaving are much earlier than the origins of metal working. However, in his coding of cultural complexity, Murdock lists 57 societies that have metal working but no weaving (1973). Murdock's codes on weaving do not distinguish between basket and mat weaving and loom weaving of fibers. Furthermore the HRAF index lists hide preparation but does not list fabric preparation, although the latter is more complex. This paper reports on the results of a re-analysis of Murdock's codes, particularly for the 57 societies coded as having metal working but no weaving.( Minturn was unable to prepare and present this address)
John Morreall (U of South Florida) PLAY I N 20TH CENTURY ART, Thursday, 3:15pm
Using slides of painting and works of sculpture, I explore four elements of play in 20th-century art. 1) its self-containedness (aesthetic experience and play are ends rather than means), 2) its spirit of experimentation, 3) its critical spirit (as playful humans, artists break rules, challenge assumptions, push the envelope), and its celebration of imagination. I concentrate on playfulness in four art movements: Marcel Duchamp (a movement unto himself), Surrealism, Pop Art, and Super Realism.
Robert Lee Munroe (Pitzer College) CROSS-CULTURAL CHILD AND FAMILY RESEARCH: SIX CULTURES OR ONE AT A TIME?, Thursday, 1pm
Darcia Narvaez, Brian Linzie, and Christyan Mitchell (U of Minnesota) DO CULTURAL GROUPS DIFFER IN HOW THEY READ MORAL TEXTS? Friday, 8:30am
Dung Ngo (Saint Louis U), Thanh V. Tran (Boston College), Judith L. Gibbons; Saint Louis U) GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF VIETNAMESE REFUGEES IN THE UNITED STATES, Friday, 1pm
This research examined gender differences in depressive symptoms, the number of past traumatic events, and level of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 349 Vietnamese refugees in the United States. Men scored significantly higher on both traumatic events and PTSD. Controlling for the number of past traumatic experiences and concurrent PTSD symptoms, significant gender differences in depression were found, with women more depressed than men. While both female and male Vietnamese refugees have been subjected to a host of horrific life events and consequent high levels of depression, gender still emerged as a factor predicting severity of depressive symptoms.
Mark Nielsen (La Trobe U) and Cheryl Dissanayake (La Trobe U) A STUDY OF PRETEND PLAY AND FALSE BELIEF IN PRESCHOOLERS: IS ALL PRETENCE METAREPRESENTATIONAL? Thursday, 1pm
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preschoolers' metarepresentational capacity and their ability to engage in pretend play. Thirty-one children aged between 36 to 54 months were videotaped engaging in one hour of free play, half an hour with each parent, from which their exhibition of distinct acts of pretend play (Object Substitution, Imaginary Play, Attribution of Properties, Role Assignment, Role Taking, and Joint Proposals) were coded. In addition, each child was administered a pantomime task and three standard false belief tasks. The only reliable associations found were between performance on the false belief tasks and the exhibition of Imaginary Object Pantomime and the pretence categories of Attribution of Properties and Object Substitution. It is argued that the findings of the current study indicate that only some components of pretend play are dependent on the capacity for metarepresentational cognition.
Carolyn North (Goucher College) TIME BINDS: UNDERSTANDING AFFLICTION IN NON-LINEAR TIME CONTEXTS Sunday, 9am
Quechua Indians of Peru's central Andes understand illness within a time frame, which is non-linear. By looking at the cosmological tales of world creation and maintenance, one can understand the Quechua experience of the body and illness. Once the complex relationship between cosmology and bodily experience is understood, it is possible to understand how, in indigenous experience, nearly all illness is "chronic". This, in turn, affects the indigenous approach to both diagnosis and healing.
Barnabus I. Okeke and Ben Sheku (Africa Research Foundation), Robert J. Kleiner (Temple U) The African law of opposites and Cross-Cultural Research, Friday, 1pm
The ancient Africans postulated that the fundamental Law of Opposites is the underlying principle governing life in the universe. Thus, the interaction of the elements (fire, water, earth, and air), and the qualities (hot, dry, cold, and wet) was the logical model for understanding nature. In the modern age, the elements and their qualities can be seen as a series of continua defined in qualitative and quantitative terms. This model makes use of a holistic framework and its goal is to discern the laws of science, determine causation, and predict outcomes. To advance the progress of human life, it is important to have an understanding of the past. The African Law of Opposites allows us to study individuals, groups and social processes. We can define in psycho-sociological terms the substantive and structural components of events in any environment, suggesting that explanation must begin with context. Some of the relevant issues in cross-cultural research include; the subject, environment, situation, and the context. We will use the Law of Opposites as an emerging paradigm to distinguish between situation and context as well as provide conceptual tools to guide cross-cultural research. This approach is intended to provide a new vision to such research.
Ann M. O'Roark (St. Petersburg), Chair of SCCR Session: Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology I
L. Diane Parham (U of Southern California) AN OCCUPATIONAL SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE ON PLAY, Saturday, 8:30am
Occupational science is a nascent social science that focuses on the everyday activities that give meaning and direction to human lives. This new discipline considers play to be a topic of central concern in understanding how people organize the time, space, and meanings of their lives. Two views of play as occupation are explored: (1) that play is an activity context for the construction of motor, cognitive, and social skills, particularly in early childhood, and (2) that play is a vehicle for personal meaning and thus makes life worth living throughout the life span. Examples of research examining play from an occupational science perspective are briefly described.
Doris Pierce (Creighton U) MATERNAL MANAGEMENT OF INFANT PLAY AFFORDANCES IN THE HOME, Friday 2:30pm
Maternal thinking exerts an overarching influence on infant play experience through the mother's management of infant play space. The spatial dimension of infant play development was examined in this study through qualitative analysis of in-home videotapes and maternal interviews from 18 Caucasian mother-infant pairs, followed monthly, from 1 to 18 months of age. This videotape presentation will cover the highlights of developmental changes in the mother's management of infant play affordances in the home, including the mother's induction into this work via the ritual of the baby shower, devices used to position the infant for play, maternal criteria for selection of commercial play objects, infants transition to independent toy access, maternal barriers to infant negotiation of the home landscape, maternal mediation of sibling-contested play objects, the mother-infant spatial tie, and arrangement and maintenance of home play space.
Loree A. Primeau (Dalhousie U) PARENT-CHILD PLAY AND HOUSEHOLD WORK WITHIN FAMILIES, Friday 2:30pm
Play between parents and their children as it occurs within their homes is given little attention in the research literature. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research study that described the play of mothers and fathers with their preschool-aged children as it occurred within the context of parents' unpaid work. Participant observation and intensive interview data were collected from ten families with preschool-aged children and were analyzed using grounded theory procedures. Parents were observed to use two types of strategies to orchestrate play with their children with participation in household work: (a) strategies of segregation and (b) strategies of inclusion. Use of strategies of segregation resulted in play interspersed with household work. Parents' use of strategies of segregation resulted in play embedded in household work. These previously undocumented types of parent-child play will be presented using data from field notes and interview transcript
Laura Purdy (Brock U) and Ann Marie Guilmette (Brock U) CHILDREN'S PREFERENCES FOR PLAY GROUND EQUIPMENT, Thursday, 3:15pm
The purpose of this research was to determine children's preferences for playground equipment. The effects of age, gender and social influence on a child's playground preferences will be examined. Children, 3-5 and 5-7 years of age, were presented with pictures that portrayed a variety of playground materials and asked to select which items they would like to have on a playground. To determine whether social influence has an effect on a child's preference, participants are divided into three separate groups. The first group involved an interview with the participant and the researchers (solitary/autonomous social influence). The second group involved three participants and the researcher (peer social influence). The third group involved a participant, the researcher and a teacher (adult social influence). This research has the potential to enhance the design of playgrounds for children.
Pamala Rao (U of Kentucky) Meaning and motherhood in southern india, Thursday, 1pm
This paper continues the investigation into parental ethnotheories of childhood around the world by reporting on research conducted in a village of coastal Andhra Pradesh, south India. Mothers in this village were interviewed about their children aged under seven years using the elicitation methods outlined by Sara Harkness, Charles Super, and others for developing cultural models of child-rearing. However, it was found that these methods did not translate neatly into this cultural context, necessitating significant modification to the technique while in the field.
Douglas Raybeck (Hamilton College) INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONS OF THE SELF: A KELANTANESE EXAMPLE, Friday, 1pm
This paper takes exception to the assertion of several anthropologists that peasant societies place a great deal of importance on the group and not the individual. Data from Kelantan, Malaysia, which include a quantitative treatment of semantic differential responses, support an argument that both the individual and the group are valued in peasant society. I also argue that attention to levels of analysis makes apparent the role of psychology in the formation of culturally shared self-conceptions. This position betters than alternatives can account for the concern of Latin societies with "machismo" and of Asian societies with "face."