Society for Cross-Cultural Research Newsletter


Fall 2003

Forthcoming Hofstede CCR Article Abstract
Announcement - Floyd Rudmin


A Message from Lewis Aptekar

Save the date: Feb. 18-22, 2004, and come to San Jose, California for the annual meeting of the Society for Cross-cultural Research. This is what many people are saying in various nooks and crannies across the world.

In addition to the regular presentations and symposia and the annual banquet we will have special events including:

Marshall Segall who will be our distinguished speaker will present his video narrative, The Illusion of Race, to the new Martin Luther King Library at San Jose State University.

Special sessions on the cultural implications of working with street children, AIDS orphans, and children traumatized by war.

The cultural implications of life in Silicon Valley.

There will be more intellectual surprises including the pleasure of building a community of scholars.

To find out more information about the annual meeting, and to register and submit your abstract check our web page,

Also, the link for the hotel booking page is:

Opt-in to receive updates via email on hotel information, promotions and free offers:

(Click on the Location from which you would like to receive information)

Hyatt San Jose at the Airport

Hyatt Sainte Claire Downtown San Jose  


Proposal for an SCCR Symposium on Circumcision for the 2004 Annual Meeting

Everyone is aware of the profound crisis in Africa caused by the AIDS pandemic. Secretary of State Colin Powell noted that HIV/AIDS is worse than any "weapon of mass destruction". The Bush administration is highlighting its "compassionate conservatism" by proclaiming a 15 billion dollar AIDS assistance package for some African and Caribbean countries hardest hit by the spread of HIV. The prevention approach being promoted by the U.S. Government through agencies such as USAID involves a de-emphasis on condoms and a heightened stress on abstinence, fidelity, and the reduction in the number of sexual partners.

Waiting in the wings is another proposal to reduce HIV rates through mass circumcision programs for adult African males. On the basis of numerous comparative studies, the claim is made that circumcision protects against becoming infected with HIV. Societies in Africa which circumcize males are said to have lower HIV prevalence rates than societies in which males remain intact. On the listserv of the AIDS & Anthropology Research Group, spirited and intense discussions of this topic have underscored the absence of consensus on the evidence itself and on the wisdom of promoting a surgical procedure to resolve a medico-behavioral situation.

Given the fact that cross-cultural data play a significant role in the alleged link between circumcision and reduced HIV prevalence rates, it seems that cross-cultural research specialists are especially well situated to evaluate the validity of this claim. And African ethnographers are needed to assess the factors that might provide support or that might constitute confounding conditions.

Therefore, I am proposing a symposium on the topic of circumcision for the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cross-Cultural Research to be held in San Jose, CA in February 2004. Scholars who are interested in participating in a session (paper presentations or panel discussions) should contact me as soon as possible:

Special Session on Research and Children

Jacqueline McAdam-Crisp

I would like to inform you of a special session on research and children that I am organizing for the annual meeting in February 2004. I have worked with children and youth in need of protection in Canada, Kenya, Rwanda and Ethiopia. Presently I am working on my Ph.D. My research focus is children of war -- the factors that affect both adaptive and maladaptive forms of resiliency. Additionally, I am concerned with how we research these children. The special session will involve two symposia of approximately four people each and will focus on the methodological challenges of cross-cultural research with children in general and those in need of protection. One session will focus on the challenges of doing research with children (those under 10 years) and the other on youth. Both sessions will examine the challenges of quantitative and qualitative methods and the ethical issues related to these two cultures of inquiry. My hope is to highlight the challenges of cross-cultural research with children in need of protection to enhance not only the quality of the data, but the impact of the process upon the lives of these children.  Please contact me at the email below if you are interested in being involved or would like something specific included in this special session.  Also, if you would like to receive information about this special session, its contents or any related papers please let me know. I look forward to meeting you at the annual meeting.

Jacqueline McAdam-Crisp (email:


Floyd Rudmin has embarked on a program of research to map the history of acculturation theory.  A first paper published this year traced acculturation theory back to Plato and earlier, and identified 68 theories articulated between 1918 and 1984. These were examined for common faults in scholarship.

(See:  Rudmin, F. W. (2003). Critical history of the acculturation psychology of assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization.  Review of General Psychology, 7, 3-37.)

This paper won honourable mention in the 2002 Otto Klineberg Prize adjudicated by SPSSI and won honourble mention in the APA's 2003 George Miller Prize.

A catalogue of  acculturation theories has since been expanded to 126 theories, each briefly described and tabulated. 

See: Rudmin, F. W. (2003). Catalogue of acculturation constructs: Descriptions of 126 taxonomies, 1918-2003. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 8, Chapter 8), (, Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA)

On-going research is trying to discover the first use of the word "acculturation", probably in US or British literature in the late 1870s literature on mental evolution, and the first use of the expression "acculturative stress", probably in the 1940s in US anthroplogical literature.

One conclusion that has been argued is that acculturation research has been dominated by the scholars, political ideologies, contexts, and problems of the USA, Canada, and Australia, all of which are similar Anglo-Saxon settler societies, but representing only about 5% of humanity.  Thus, acculturtation research should move away from studies within these nations and move towards holocultural studies involving representative samples of human cultures and their contexts. 

See:  Rudmin, F. W. (2003).  Debate in science: The case of acculturation.  Under review with Applied Psychology: An International Review.

Dr. Rudmin would be very pleased to have contact with scholars with similar interests, or with knowledge of these historical literatures, or with interest in receiving copies of any of these papers.  Contact

Article forthcoming in Cross-Cultural Research

Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture

 Geert Hofstede
Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation
Tilburg, the Netherlands 

Robert R. McCrae
National Institute on Aging, NIH, DHHS
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 

"Personality and culture" or "culture and personality" was a focus of anthropology and to some extent of psychology in the first half of the 20th century. It was concerned with traditional and pre-literate societies and drew many of its constructs from psychoanalysis. In this review article, we note that taxonomies of personality traits and cultural values developed independently since 1980 have created new possibilities for exploring the relationship between culture and personality. The Five-Factor Model of personality is a universally valid taxonomy of traits, applicable regardless of society, ethnicity, gender, age, or education. The IBM study (Hofstede) dimensions of culture represent a well-validated operationalization of differences between the cultures of present-day nations as manifested in dominant value systems. In re-analyses of recently reported data, mean personality factor scores from 33 countries around the world were significantly and substantially correlated with culture dimension scores. We discuss both environmental and temperamental explanations for these associations and suggest directions for future research, including replications, experimental simulations, acculturation studies, and research on the interaction of traits and culture in shaping human lives.

Correspondence can be addressed to Geert Hofstede, Den Bruyl 15, 6881-AN Velp, the Netherlands. Email:



The world is becoming increasingly interconnected in terms of peoples and economies, and over 100 million people now live outside their country of origin.  Globalization, migration, and growing within-society cultural diversity have contributed to the multicultural nature of modern life, and increasing intercultural contact has highlighted the necessity for enhanced intercultural awareness and effective intercultural communication. 

In the international arenas the enhancement of intercultural and interethnic relations is dependent upon sound theory and research which are translated into tangible outcomes. This is accomplished through four major areas of cross-cultural study and the application of research findings to training, programme development, and policy advice.  These areas are: (1) cross-cultural comparison‹ the examination of cultural similarities and differences  in values, norms, leadership structures, and other  processes that may facilitate or hinder  intercultural contact, (2) acculturation and adaptation‹  the study of the process and outcomes of cross-cultural transition,  including the experiences of sojourners, immigrants, refugees and returnees; (3) cultural diversity‹  the study of intergroup relations between ethnic and cultural groups within a nation; and (4) ethno-psychologies  (sometimes referred to as indigenous psychologies)- culture bound ideas about human behaviour and experience, including psychological structures and processes. 

The mission of the proposed Centre for Applied Cross-cultural Research (CACR) is to provide high quality research, training, consultation and policy advice in these four areas.

The Centre for Applied Cross-cultural Research is a multi-disciplinary Applied Research Centre with a focus on individual, small group and institution level research, consultancy and training. CACR"s stakeholders include a range of people representing academic disciplines, government policy-makers, the commercial sector, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and voluntary organisations.

CACR is international in its scope and outlook, but its focus is on the Asia Pacific and the Pacific Rim areas.  Its major activities are:

1.  Research : CACR undertakes basic and applied studies related to culture and culture contact.  Recent and current projects include: Psychological, social, and educational adaptation of international students; Identity, acculturation and adaptation of immigrant youth; New Zealanders" perceptions of Asian migrants; Stress, coping and adaptation in adolescents in four countries; A cross-cultural study of organisational practices and work behaviour (in ten countries); Cross-cultural differences in cultural looseness-tightness; Student and teacher characteristics as predictors of success in second language learning; An investigation of the applicability of selected survey instruments across cultures; Positive ageing in Maori, Pakeha and Chinese elderly; Globalisation and youth; Intercultural conflict and negotiation;  and Intercultural communication in the workplace.

CACR plans to emerge as an internationally recognised centre for cross-cultural research and is happy to host visiting scholars with cross-cultural interests. 

2.  Training: This is geared both towards capacity building. Recent examples have included: training for the International Student Centre, the Residential Assistants, Foundation Studies and University teaching and Development Centre at VUW; support and training to the Youth Exchange Development Programme (part of AIESEC);  training and advice about cross-cultural work and adaptation; training for teaching in culturally diverse classrooms; training on ³culture shock² and ³re-entry.²

CACR will promote training programmes by international experts in the field.

3.  Public Education.  The Centre organises  public lectures on themes pertaining to cultural diversity and intercultural relations.

4.  Consultancy and  Policy Advice. A significant role of CACR is informing policy makers about matters concerned with cultural differences, cultural diversity, and cross-cultural relations. Consultancy services for the private sector, broadly in relation working across cultures (e.g., exporting goods and services to new market places, participating in international projects) may also be provided.

5.  CACR and the School of Psychology- The Centre is closely aligned with the School of Psychology and supports its teaching and research activities. These include the development of a joint Masters degree in cross-cultural psychology with the University of Hawaii, post-graduate training in psychology in combination with intensive English language programs, and jointly supervised Ph.D. research with universities in the Greater Mekong Region.

The CACR has a Director, Advisory Board, Fellows and Working groups, International Affiliates, and Network members.

Cross-cultural researchers and trainers with noteworthy standing in the international community who will foster collaborative research and other objectives of CACR will be invited to become international affiliates.

CACR welcomes international scholars as visitors and research collaborators.

For  further information contact : Colleen Ward or Jim Liu, School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. E-mail:, Fax: 64-4-4635402.



The 2004 meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development (ISSBD) will be held in Ghent, Belgium from July 11-15, 2004.  Information about the conference is available at the ISSBD 2004 website at


The XVII Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IAACP) will be held at Shaanxi Normal University in Xi'an, China, from August 2-6, 2004.  Information about the conference is available at


Uwe P. Gielen

Uwe P. Gielen would like to announce two books which have recently been published.  All three editors of both books (Leonore Loeb Adler, Anna Laura Comunian and Uwe P. Gielen) have participated in SCCR meetings.

One description is a Word attachment. The other is as follows:

Comunian, A. L., & Gielen, U. P. (2002). It's all about relationships. Germany: Pabst.

This volume contains the contributions of 75 researchers and theorists from 15 countries. The contributions examine the central role of family-based relationships in the lives of children, adolescents and adults. It looks at the similarities and differences across the contexts of clinical psychology, education and work and proposes a variety of relationship-oriented principles designed to offer more effective psychological interventions.The contributors to the book come from five continents and represent a broad variety of perspectives in cross-cultural and international psychology.

For more information, contact:

Uwe P. Gielen, PhD
Professor of Psychology
St. Francis College
180 Remsen Street
Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA

Tel: 718-489-5386
Fax: 718-522-1274

Rogelio Díaz-Guerrero

Editorial Trillas (FAX: 55 56330870) has published my book with the title Bajo las Garras de la Cultura (Under the Clutches of Culture). The book summarizes extensive quantitative work conducted in Mexico to understand and search to optimize the behavior of its people. A cohorts study reports the evolution through 35 years of factorial scales of traditional Mexican cultural beliefs. This provides insights about the evolution of culture, in both, its constructive and negative aspects. The data is reported in the context of the argument that humanity is, and has been, perennially under de clutches of culture. Data is provided that highlights secular education as crucial to foster the positive and discourage the contrary effects of culture. The brand of Cultural Psychology exampled in the book goes back to 1952. It is enriched by key-moting its decisive utility to discover the positive psychology aspects of a culture and searching for ways to incorporate these in every day behavior. Díaz-Guerrero is Emeritus Research Professor of the Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Rogelio Díaz-Guerrero, PhD, MD
Emeritus Research Professor
Facultad de Psicología

Congratulations Ron Rohner

Congratulations to Ronald Rohner who is is the 2004 recipient of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology! In the past 42 years, Ron and his wife Nancy have have been responsible for a very influential body of international research based on a multimethod and multi-procedural approach to the study of parental acceptance-rejection.
Ron can be reached at:

Ronald P. Rohner, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus and Director
Ronald and Nancy Rohner Center
for the Study of Parental Acceptance and Rejection
School of Family Studies, Unit 2058
University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06269-2058 USA
860.486.0073 phone
860.486.3452 FAX


(Effective September 28, 2003)

Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers
233 Spring Street
New York, New York 10013

Anthony J. Marsella, Ph.D., D.H.C. Series Editor

Sharon Panulla, Psychology Editor, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers

Kurasaki, K., Okazaki, S., & Sue, S.  (2002).  Asian-American Mental Health: Assessment, Theory, & Methods.  New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.   ISBN: HB:  0-306-47268-6

McCrae, R.,  Allik, J. (Eds.) (2002). The Five-Factor Model of Personality Across Cultures.  Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.   ISBN:   HB:  0-306-47354-2, PB: 0-306-47355-0.

Dockett, K., Dudley-Grant, R., Bankart, C. P. (Eds.) (2002).  Psychology and Buddhism: From Individual to Global Community.   New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.   ISBN:  HB: 0-306-47412-3

Green, B., Friedman, M., DeJong, J., Solomon, S., Keane, T., Fairbanks, J., Donelan, B., & Frey-Walters, E. (Eds.) (2003).  Trauma Interventions in War and Peace: Prevention, Practice, Policy.  New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.  ISBN: HB: 0-306-47723-8,   PB: 0-306-477246.

Carr, S., & Sloan, T. (Eds.) (in press- December 2003).  Global Poverty: International Perspectives.  New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.    

MacArthur, N. (in press-December, 2003).  International Exchange Students: Foundations, Issues, Directions.  New York:  Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.

Marsella, A.J.,, Austin, A., & Grant, B. (in progress ­ scheduled for June 2004).  Social Change and Psychosocial Adaptation in the Pacific Islands: Accounts of Cultures in Transition.  Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.

Maynard, A., & Martini, M. (Eds.) (in progress ­ scheduled for August, 2004).  Culture, Cognition, and Education.  Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.