31st Annual Meeting
Society for Cross-Cultural Research
La Fonda on the Plaza
Santa Fe, New Mexico
February 19 - 24, 2002
Judith L. Gibbons
Saint Louis University
Miriam E. Joseph
Natalie N. Humphrey
Partial support for this meeting is provided by the
College of Arts & Sciences at Saint Louis University
Achhpal, Beena (University of Connecticut) Achhpal@southernct.edu
A COMPARISON OF EUROPEAN AMERICAN AND PUERTO RICAN PARENTS' BELIEFS AND EXPECTATIONS CONCERNING EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAMS FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
This study compared the beliefs of European American and Puerto Rican parents about their socialization goals for children, and their expectations concerning the skills to be encouraged in early childhood programs.
Participants were 60 parents (30 European American, 30 Puerto Rican) of children in Head Start programs in Northeast Connecticut.
Both groups of parents valued prosocial skills, readiness skills, and skills related to good behavior for children.
They considered creative and physical skills as least important.
Both groups also had similar beliefs about undesirable behaviors that they did not want children to have; about the benefits of preschool education; and about the importance of different Head Start services.
Ahmed, Ramadan A. (Kuwait University) firstname.lastname@example.org
COLOR PREFERENCES IN KUWAIT USING DIFFERENT OBJECTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
It was established long ago, that color preferences differ due to the differences in age, sex, educational, vocational, and social and cultural backgrounds.
Yet, it is still not clear whether (or not) an individual will produce the same color preferences if he (or she) was exposed to different objects?
For answering this question, 543 Kuwaiti males and females aged between 12 and 57 years from different educational and vocational levels, were asked to report their color preferences for three different objects (i.e. clothes they prefer to wear; houses they prefer to live in; and the cars they prefer to drive).
Results showed that individual's color preferences differ due to the differences in objects presented.
Also, and as was found in a previous Kuwaiti study, results of the present study revealed that color preferences differ according to age, sex, educational and vocational levels, and social and cultural backgrounds.
Ahmed, Ramadan A. (Kuwait University) email@example.com
The present paper deals with family in Egypt.
It begins with highlighting some historical and demographic aspects in Egypt (e.g. history, population, language, religion and family traditions).
Because marriage was always (and still is) considered as the only acceptable way to establish family in Egypt and other Arab countries, various aspects of marriage will be discussed, such as: marriage customs in the past and the present, mate selection, age of marriage, mixed marriage, marriage advertisements, and household roles, attitudes and practices of pregnancy, childbirth, and birth control, fertility, preference for sons, socialization in Egyptian families, the unseen father, polygamy and divorce.
These will be followed by some topics related to the family, such as: illiteracy, education, work and unemployment and their influences on families, maternal leave, the impact of mother's work on family and children, children's work and old age.
At the end, institutions, which offer services to the family in Egypt, will be shortly reported.
Alvarado, Nancy (University of California, San Diego) firstname.lastname@example.org; & Jameson, Kimberly A. (University of California, San Diego) email@example.com
COLOR NAMING AND MODIFIER USE IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE
While they are universally the most frequently used to name colors, basic color terms are always used in the context of larger linguistic systems when describing color experience.
To investigate more naturalistic naming behaviors, we studied modifier use in English and Vietnamese using an unconstrained color-naming task.
Results revealed greater reliance upon polylexemic naming among monolingual Vietnamese speakers compared to English speakers.
Such systematic differences across language groups imply that monolexemic naming methods may not tell us everything we need to know about universalities and cultural differences in color naming.
Angelillo, Cathy ˝ See Chavajay, Pablo for Abstract.
Aptekar, Lewis (San Jos╚ State University) firstname.lastname@example.org
CROSS CULTURAL PROBLEMS IN SUPPLYING WESTERN MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES IN INTERNATIONAL RELIEF
A series of cultural difficulties arise for Westerners supplying mental in international humanitarian aid.
The author draws on his experience in several African countries to examine the following questions:
In such dire circumstances found in refugee camps where loss and poverty are so striking, what, if any is the value of mental health counseling?
Should material assistance, unethical in the West, be given to impoverished clients?
If counseling is to be given, what are the logistical problems related to cultural differences?
Is it possible for people to get accustomed to suffering so that, for example, losing one's children in a country where children commonly die, mean that parents suffered less than they might in the West?
The author discusses how these and other cultural differences must be forded in order to supply mental health services.
Atran, Scott - See Knight, Nicola for Abstract.
Axia, G. (Italy) ˝ See Parmar, Parminder for Abstract.
Baker, Christopher ˝ See Stiles, Deborah A. for Abstract.
Banuazizi, Ali ˝ See Carson, Alison S. for Abstract.
Barrett, Justin - See Knight, Nicola for Abstract.
Barry, Herbert, III (University of Pittsburgh) email@example.com
CULTURAL CUSTOMS ASSOCIATED WITH A GENITAL OPERATION ON ADOLESCENT BOYS
Painful procedures in the initiation ceremony for adolescent boys are reported in 40 of the 186 societies in the standard world sample.
A genital operation occurs in 20 of these 40 societies.
Three customs associated with a genital operation might indicate a cultural emphasis on commerce as a substitute for erotic pleasure, control of the nuclear family by the father, and control of the community by a hereditary leader.
(1) Money or another medium of exchange is used instead of barter.
(2) The family is nuclear instead of extended.
(3) A son of the incumbent or of his sister inherits political leadership of the community.
Bartmann, Sylke (Carl von Ossietzky Universitöt Oldenburg, Germany) firstname.lastname@example.org; Garz, Detlef (Carl von Ossietzky Universitöt Oldenburg, Germany) email@example.com; & Lee, Hyo-Seon (Kang Nam University, South Korea)
THE EMIGRATION PROCESS OF GERMAN SPEAKING REFUGEES
The central aim is to show results of our working with autobiographies of refugees from Germany.
People who had to leave Germany after Hitler came to power are standing at the center of attention.
The main interest of this paper centers upon the life of Emigrants before and after their emigration.
We have analyzed the clues in the autobiographies to gain more understanding about the questions:
What kind of experience had an influence of the perception and the dealing with the growing nationalism and how is the relationship between these experience and the 'decision' to emigrate and what kind of experiences had an effect on further life?
Best, Deborah L. ˝ See Thomas, Jennifer J. for Abstract.
Blom, Marjolijn ˝ See Parmar, Parminder for Abstract.
B»e, Nils ˝ See Klepp, Olav Martin; & S»rensen, Tom for Abstract.
Borinskaya, Svetlana A. (Institute of General Genetics, Moscow) firstname.lastname@example.org
DOPAMINE RECEPTOR GENE ALLELES AND SOCIOCULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS: CROSS-CULTURAL TEST
By the moment considerable research has been conducted with respect to the correlations between the genotype and personality traits; however, a little attention appears to have been paid to the study of the correlation between genotype and sociocultural characteristics.
The paper presents results of cross-cultural tests of the correlations between certain cultural parameters and frequencies of some neurotransmitter gene alleles.
Cultural complexity in general and political centralization in particular turns out to be the strongest predictors of allele frequency in populations.
They correlate with high frequency of DRD R2 allele associated with low novelty seeking (rho=+0.46; p=0.05 for cultural complexity and rho=+0.5; p=0.002 for political centralization), while their correlation with DRD R7 allele associated with high level of novelty seeking (so called "gene of adventurism") is negative (rho= -0.57; p=0.02 and rho= -0.32; p=0.04 respectively).
Those correlations could be easily accounted for.
The frequencies of above mentioned alleles also correlate with monogamy/polygyny, unilineal/bilateral and matricentric/particentric features of social organization.
The paper presents explanation for the above-mentioned regularities.
Brickman, Stephanie J. (Southwestern Oklahoma State University) email@example.com
SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXTS AND PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTIONS OF FUTURE GOALS
This study is based on a theoretical model that depicts future goals as an important factor to achievement motivation.
The perception that one is successfully moving toward future goals is a powerful incentive for present task engagement.
This model suggests that the types of future goals developed over time and across sociocultural contexts, such as home and school, will shape the type and level of motivation that a student will invest in their education.
Parent interviews and autobiographical data from students of different ethnic groups will be used to demonstrate parents' influence on the development of students' future goals, and the impact of future goals on present academic behavior.
Carson, Alison S. (Hofstra University) firstname.lastname@example.org; & Banuazizi, Ali (Boston College) email@example.com
NORMS OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE AND CONCEPTIONS OF EQUALITY: A U.S.-PHILIPPINES COMPARISON
This study compares the patterns of resource allocation and their underlying norms of distributive justice between Filipino and American youths.
Based on the responses of a sample of 92 college students from each society to four hypothetical scenarios involving the distribution of a resource, we sought to evaluate, first, the degree to which norms of equality, equity (merit), or need were favored by the participants in making decisions.
Subsequently, we explored the influence of the respondents' position on Singelis's Independent/Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, as well as two measures of equality beliefs, on the participants' allocative decisions.
The finding is discussed with reference to the two cultures' broader norms of social reciprocity and fairness.
Caulkins, D. Douglas (Grinnell College) Caulkins@grinnell.edu; Hanson, Christina (Grinnell College); Cherry, Jane (Grinnell College); & Schlegel, Victoria (Grinnell College)
COMPARING ORGANIZATIONAL DISCOURSES IN BRITISH HERITAGE SITES
Using a sample of four heritage sites in England, Scotland, and Wales, we report the results of a method for using pile sorts and consensus analysis to analyze similarities and differences between contested organizational discourses about the services provided and the problems faced by the sites.
After touring and observing these heritage sites, we interviewed both management and staff about the relative importance of, first, the site's services and, second, the site's problems.
Consensus analysis reveals patterns of agreement and contestation within these organizational discourses.
Chang, Pei-Yu ˝ See Johnson, Jim for Abstract.
Chang, Weining C. ˝ See Koh, Jessie B. K. for Abstract.
Chavajay, Pablo (Utah State University) firstname.lastname@example.org; & Angelillo, Cathy (University of California, Santa Cruz) email@example.com
DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SOCIALIZATION PRACTICES IN A GUATEMALAN MAYAN COMMUNITY
Sociocultural research increasingly points to the importance of understanding the cultural aspects of community development (Greenfield, 1999; Rogoff & Wertsch, 1984; Vygotsky, 1978).
This study explores how cultural perspectives on socialization practices valued in a Mayan community are preserved or discontinued, by comparing two generations of mothers, 20 mothers of school-age children and their mothers (i.e., grandmothers).
Preliminary findings indicate that the socialization practices across the grandmothers' and mothers' generations have changed to incorporate more recent social and economic developments.
Such transformations in socialization practices may demonstrate mothers' efforts to prepare their children to meet ever-changing family and community demands.
Cheah, Charissa S. L. (University of Saskatchewan) firstname.lastname@example.org
EUROPEAN AMERICAN AND MAINLAND CHINESE MOTHERS' SOCIALIZATION BELIEFS REGARDING PRESCHOOLERS' SOCIAL SKILLS
The purpose of the present study was to examine the socialization beliefs of European American and mainland Chinese mothers; specifically, maternal beliefs about preschoolers' social skills (sharing, controlling negative emotions, and helping others) within a cultural framework.
Participants were 103 Euro-American and 100 mainland Chinese mothers of preschoolers.
Mothers' cognitions regarding the importance of each of these social skills, the reasons for the importance, causal attributions, and the socialization strategies that would be most effective, were targeted.
Findings on Euro-American mothers supported previous research on Euro-North American mothers' socialization beliefs while mainland Chinese mothers' beliefs were related to traditional Chinese ideologies and values in meaningful ways.
Findings will be discussed with regard to the importance of examining cultural ideologies in the study of child socialization.
Cherry, Jane ˝ See Caulkins, D. Douglas for Abstract.
Chick, Garry (Pennsylvania State University) email@example.com
A COMPARISON OF EMPLOYER AND STUDENT CULTURES IN WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA
A minimal description of culture might be that it consists of information, partly in the form of beliefs and values, that is learned and shared.
Schools are expressly designed for the inculcation of many kinds of cultural information.
In this study, I compared sets of beliefs and values related to work held by vocational and academic high school students with the beliefs and values sought in employees by potential employers.
Results suggest that the beliefs and values sought by employers in the metalworking trades of western Pennsylvania are more characteristic of academic students than of vocational students training for jobs in these industries.
Cohen, Seth (University of New Mexico) Sethgeorgi@aol.com
TACIT CULTURE AND IDENTITY
The focus of my presentation will be on using our senses as an instrument of learning in intercultural communication.
I will share my experiences of observing tacit culture in various intercultural exchanges.
Conversations with a Maya in Chiapas and a Palestinian living in the United States will serve as examples of the importance of understanding the interconnectedness of verbal and nonverbal communication in intercultural exchanges.
The relationship between tacit culture and identity will also be discussed by explaining how we must understand the hidden aspects of ourselves (our identities) to become effective, sensitive communicators.
Coleman, Karen J. (University of Texas at El Paso) firstname.lastname@example.org; & Rutt, Candace D. (University of Texas at El Paso)
AN ETHNOGRAPHIC AND QUANTITATIVE LOOK AT WOMEN'S HEALTH ON THE U.S./MEXICO BORDER
Little is known about Hispanic women's health care behaviors and the reasons behind them.
This study presents quantitative and qualitative health behavior data for 62 women living on the U.S./M╚xico border (38 Hispanic, 17 Anglo, and 5 African American).
Women were 17 to 62 years old with education levels of elementary school to post-graduate work.
Anglo and Hispanic women were similar in weight, with 50-60% of women overweight or obese, while African American women were significantly more overweight or obese (100%).
Women who were physically active had male models for physical activity as children; women gained an average of 50 pounds with each pregnancy and were not being counseled on weight management during and after pregnancy; and many women reported eating as a primary coping strategy for stress.
Comunian, Anna L. (University of Padua, Italy); & Gielen, Uwe P. (St. Francis College) email@example.com
THE STRUCTURE OF THE PADUA MORAL JUDGMENT SCALE: A STUDY OF YOUNG ADULTS IN NINE COUNTRIES
We present the rationale as well as reliability and construct validity data for a new, objective self-report moral judgment test, the Padua Moral Judgment Scale (MJS).
Data were collected from a sample of 322 young adults aged 19 to 27 (mean age = 23 years) from nine countries: Australia, Belgium, Chile, England, Italy, Ireland, Madagascar, the USA, and Thailand.
Confirmatory factor analyses indicated a general as well as hierarchical structure with four group factors (stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, stage 4), consistent with previous investigations.
Results suggest that the structure of the MJS is highly similar among the young adults from nine countries.
Condon, John C. (University of New Mexico) firstname.lastname@example.org
INTERPERSONAL SYNCHRONY AND ITS RELEVANCE TO INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
Rhythm, timing, synchrony, entrainment, and other related phenomena are sometimes alluded to in studies of communication and culture, but far less often explored.
One person who has explored this connection is Edward T. Hall, whose pioneering work drew in part from the extensive studies of interpersonal synchrony by William Condon.
Review of the basic concepts of this body of work and their relevance for communication and intercultural understanding provide a background for experiential activities in rhythm, movement, and the perception of time.
Cristancho, Sergio (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) email@example.com
NATURAL JUSTICE IN LETUAMA CULTURE
The concept of natural justice has been used in Western cultures to describe the most basic etic norms of social behavior.
For Letuama people, an indigenous community from the Colombian Amazon, natural justice is the overarching subjective norm concept driving not only social but also human-nature interactions.
Upon a grounded analysis of qualitative data, six basic principles of justice were found, which underlie their social and natural behavior:
Quid pro quo, reciprocity, antagonism, cleverness, parallelism, and respect for tradition.
These principles are illustrated with field data and discussed upon as far as their behavioral implications in terms of rituals and daily practices.
Dalgard, Odd Steffen ˝ See Kleiner, Robert J. for Abstract.
Dambrauskas, Joseph J. (Private Practitioner, Champaign IL) firstname.lastname@example.org
THE PLAY AND CULTURE OF THREE COUNTRIES: AMERICA, AUSTRIA AND LITHUANIA
For each country the culture was analyzed using various reference sources such as literature, folklore, mythology, archaeology and history.
Play of the youth between ages 3 26 years was studied using ethnographic techniques.
In addition to the differences in competitive or co-operative aspects in play, a certain portion in each country was found to contain a cultural theme that, furthermore, seems similar to the major theme in the adult culture.
de La Rosa, Gabriel ˝ See Glazer, Sharon for Abstract.
de Munck, Victor C. (State University of New York, New Paltz) email@example.com
SRI LANKA BUDDHIST AND MUSLIM MODELS OF GENDER: ARE THESE CROSS-CULTURAL, INTRA-CULTURAL OR CROSS-GENDER MODELS?
Interview and Survey Data are used to determine whether Religion, Gender, or some mixture of the two can produce different cultural models of gender in a Sri Lankan community comprised of Buddhists and Muslims.
Cross-cultural research (Williams and Best, 1990a and 1990b) has suggested that Muslim societies are more patriarchal than other religiously defined societies (i.e., Christian, Buddhist, Hindu).
But as they take these societies to be religiously homogeneous, there may be many other social, economic, ecological, historical and political variables that can account for this difference.
I take as an example a population of Muslims and Buddhists who live in the same area in Sri Lanka, and are identical in their social and economic practices and position in society.
If, indeed, Islamic ideology produces a different pattern of gender relations and, hence, different cultural understanding of gender then it should show up in this study.
I use consensus analysis, cross-tabulations, and narrative analysis to compare male and female, Buddhist and Muslim representations of gender.
de Munck, Victor ˝ See Ember, Carol R.; & Raybeck, Douglas for Abstracts.
de Silva, Sarita A. - See de Silva, Suneetha S. for Abstract.
de Silva, Suneetha S. (Rocky Mountain College) firstname.lastname@example.org
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF PRESCHOOL PARENTS
Barnlund (1975) considers problems of meaning associated with cultural differences in intercultural interactions.
Among ethnically diverse families, the current status of the parent teacher relationship seems to support a one-way definition, characterized by the lack of intercultural communication.
Parents from eleven diverse cultures participated in this study to investigate the attitudes and beliefs of culturally diverse parents regarding their role in their children's education.
The results indicated that misinterpretation during intercultural communication led the teachers of these children to view culturally diverse parents as not being involved in the education of their children.
Contrary to the perception of the teachers, parents perceived themselves as being very much involved in the education of their children by teaching them morals, manners, to be obedient to their teachers and in the transmission of cultural values and expectations.
de Silva, Suneetha S. (Rocky Mountain College) email@example.com; de Silva, Sarita A. (Rocky Mountain College); Wegner, Elizabeth (Rocky Mountain College); & Leaf, Linaya (Rocky Mountain College)
GROWING UP IN TWO CULTURES: CHALLENGING CULTURAL TRANSMISSION
The experience of growing up in two cultures may be not be limited to ethnic differences and may be more difficult for young women than men.
Women who frequently rely on other women for support in difficult situations find them selves in isolation during cross-cultural transitions (Ahern, Bryan, and Baca 1985).
This study conducted among college age students investigates the challenges faced by women when moving away from their culture to determine an identity of their own.
Cross- cultural transitions and their complex and multidimensional nature as well as barriers to communication common across generations are explored.
Possible prescriptions for educators will also be discussed.
de Silva, Suneetha S. ˝ See Stiles, Deborah A. for Abstract.
Deenan, Aporn (Burapha University, Thailand) firstname.lastname@example.org; Thanee, Sanguan (Burapha University, Thailand); & Sumonwong, Wachiraporn (Burapha University, Thailand)
INDUSTRIALIZATION AND ADOLESCENTS IN THAILAND
Although industrialization promotes quality of life, several studies indicate that it also contributes to overweight/obesity.
The purposes of this study were to describe and compare eating and exercise behaviors and related factors among Thai adolescents who lived in urban and rural areas of the Eastern Seaboard of Thailand.
1086 high-school students completed several questionnaires.
Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and t-tests.
Results showed that 5% of adolescents were overweight/obese.
Rural adolescents were significant higher on optimism, daily concerns, family incomes, and exercise role models, whereas urban adolescents have more overweight/obese family members and higher on exercise norms.
Dhindsa, Manveen ˝ See Glazer, Sharon for Abstract.
DiGiovanni, Joan Fimbel (University of Maryland) email@example.com
ILLUMINATING GENDER CONCEPTS BY AUDREY FLACK'S PHOTO REALISTIC PORTRAIT OF MARILYN (VANITAS 1977 MONROE'S ICONOGRAPHY) IN ARIZONA US, BELGIUM, AND ITALY
Teaching Psychology of Gender is an art.
Using A. Flack's Photorealistic portrait of Marilyn (Vanitas) 1977 in three classes (2000-2001) at University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, University of Maryland University College classes at SHAPE, Mons, Belgium, and Agnano, Naples, Italy stimulated intense discussions about the iconography of Monroe.
Analysis of her accessories focused on gender roles and conflict, gender identity, archetypal images, androgyny, definition of beauty, social learning theory, perception, script messages, loss of beauty compounded by lowered self-worth, and suicide.
Divale, William (York College, City University of New York) firstname.lastname@example.org; & Knibb, Kraig (York College, City University of New York)
TAT PROJECTIONS OF ABANDONMENT, DISAPPOINTMENT AND MONEY CONCERNS OF THE ELDERLY
One hundred forty-five elderly persons, mostly minority, were interviewed and shown a TAT card (Thematic Apperception Test) which could suggest mother and son conflicts. The TAT stories collected suggested different cultural themes, and were coded for the presence of seven different variables: Abandonment, Financial problems, Disappointment, Sadness or Anger, Other Problems, Nursing Homes, and Illness or Death. It was hypothesized that marital status and the amount of contact with children would be inversely related to the presence of these themes.
Draguns, Juris G. (Pennsylvania State University) email@example.com
INTER-ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE BALTIC STATES: A PARTICIPANT OBSERVER'S PERSPECTIVE
On the basis of the accumulated social psychology findings and personal observations, a description is presented of the current issues in interaction between Latvian and Estonian majorities and Russophone minority.
Promising programs for fostering conflict management and social integration are also described.
Current trends are identified and future prospects sketched.
Edman, Jeanne L. (Cosumnes River College) firstname.lastname@example.org; & Yates, Alayne (University of Hawaii Medical School)
IDEAL BODY TYPE AND SYMPTOMS OF EATING DISORDERS: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY
Recent studies have examined whether there are cultural differences in ideal body type among women, and the results suggest that many cultures have similar perceptions of the size and shape of the ideal female body.
The present study examines the ideal body type of Pacific Islander (Chamorro) female college students and a comparison group of Caucasian female college students.
We also examined symptoms of eating disorders as measured by three sub-scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2.
The results suggest that while Chamorro females had higher Body Mass Index scores, both cultural groups equally preferred the slender body images.
There were also no cultural differences in symptoms of eating disorders.
The results support recent cross-cultural findings suggesting a more universal view of the slender ideal body type.
Ember, Carol R. (Human Relations Area Files, New Haven CT) Carol.Ember@yale.edu; Ember, Melvin (Human Relations Area Files, New Haven CT); Korotayev, Andrey (Moscow School of Economics-State University) email@example.com; & de Munck, Victor C. (State University of New York, New Paltz) firstname.lastname@example.org
WHY IS FAT OR THIN DESIRABLE? A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY
A pilot study examined the relationships between three measures of resource scarcity and the desirability of thinness or fatness in a mate.
The expectation was that societies subject to more scarcity would admire fatness because fatness would be more likely to survive a period of scarcity.
The results were unexpected.
We discuss possible explanations and why our results may differ from previous cross-cultural research.
Ember, Carol R. - See Ember, Melvin for Abstract.
Ember, Melvin (Human Relations Area Files, New Haven CT) Melvin.Ember@yale.edu; & Ember, Carol R. (Human Relations Area Files, New Haven CT) Carol.Ember@yale.edu
SOCIALLY ORGANIZED AGGRESSION: CROSS-CULTURAL ANALOG OF TERRORISM?
International terrorism depends on international travel and communication and probably has no direct analog in the ethnographic record.
Yet if we think of it as socially organized aggression directed at noncombatants, there might be an analog.
Since half the societies known to anthropology did not have political integration beyond the local group, in our research we classify socially organized aggression between communities as warfare.
Here we focus on socially organized aggression (e.g., by groups of kin or groups of age-mates) within communities, directed at ýcivilians,ţ and usually involving surprise attack.
This paper describes preliminary results of cross-cultural research on the possible causes of socially organized aggression.
Ember, Melvin ˝ See Ember, Carol R. for Abstract.
Erchak, Gerald M. ˝ See Levinson, Ruth Andrea for Abstract.
Fiske, Alan - See Thomsen, Lotte for Abstract.
Fought, Carmen ˝ See Munroe, Robert L. for Abstract.
Fought, John ˝ See Munroe, Robert L. for Abstract.
Frazzini, John (Career Prep High School, Shiprock NM) email@example.com; & Holland, Colby firstname.lastname@example.org
RESEARCH APPLICATIONS IN WORKING WITH CULTURALLY AND LINGUISTICALLY DIFFERENT LEARNERS
A qualitative look at the application of constructivism, Native American based techniques for reclaiming youth at risk, language acquisition, and Multiple Intelligences on the Navajo reservation.
The speaker will present the framework of thought that led to the synthesis of using current research and putting it into practice.
Awareness of these issues and actually addressing them, are often two separate entities in the field of education.
Starting with the philosophical concept of constructivism, the real world reality of Native American youth living on reservations, and the cultural and linguistic obstacles Native American youth face, the speaker and his colleague came up with a way to actually address these issues in the classrooms in which they work.
The vehicle used for implementing theory into practice was using Multiple Intelligences teaching practices in the classroom.
Fukumoto, Akiko (University of New Mexico) email@example.com
ARE JAPANESE UNIQUE ABOUT DISASTER BELIEFS? EXPLORING NATIONALITY, SELF-CONSTRUAL, AND DISASTER BELIEFS
This present study explored the influences of nationality and self-construal on disaster beliefs.
A Japanese scholar claimed that Japanese hold unique disaster beliefs due to its frequent exposure to natural disasters such as typhoons and earthquakes.
The present study examined the claim statistically comparing Japanese and North Americans.
78 participants from a southwestern city including Japanese (N = 24) and Americans (N = 54) completed 64-item questionnaire.
Significant differences were found in perceptions of control over environments.
Factors were loaded not by the agent of control, but by the perceptions of control.
Also, self-construal is a better predictor of disaster beliefs than nationality.
Garz, Detlef ˝ See Bartmann, Sylke for Abstract.
Gibbons, Judith L. ˝ See Moreno, Ilina Todorova; Stiles, Deborah A.; & Weigl, Robert for Abstracts.
Gielen, Uwe P. ˝ See Comunian, Anna L.; Naito, Takashi; & Weigl, Robert for Abstracts.
Glazer, Sharon (San Jos╚ State University) firstname.lastname@example.org; de La Rosa, Gabriel (San Jos╚ State University); Dhindsa, Manveen (San Jos╚ State University); & Gonzalez, Jose (San Jos╚ State University)
DEVELOPING A THEORETICAL MODEL FOR STUDYING OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AMONG EXPATRIATES AND REPATRIATES
The study of occupational stress from a cross-cultural perspective is rare and studies of it across nations other than the west are also limited (Glazer & Beehr, in progress).
Moreover, there has been little research on occupational stress among business expatriates, although researchers have been studying aspects of expatriates' adjustment to host cultures.
Through extensive review of literature and accounts from expatriates, we present a theoretical model from which to study and begin to understand the types of role stressors and personal and organizational strains that result from working as a business expatriate.
Gonzalez, Jose ˝ See Glazer, Sharon for Abstract.
Good, Erin ˝ See Munroe, Robert L. for Abstract.
Halverson, Charles F. ˝ See Havill, Valerie L. for Abstract.
Hamamoto, Deborah N. ˝ See Skorikov, Vladimir B. for Abstract.
Hanson, Christina ˝ See Caulkins, D. Douglas for Abstract.
Hardin, C. L. (Syracuse University) email@example.com
EXPLAINING BASIC COLOR CATEGORIES
Berlin and Kay have argued that the number of basic color terms in a language predicts what these terms will be.
Although some cross-cultural features of color naming that they have discovered can be accounted for by opponent-process theory, others seem to depend upon perceptual saliences that are ill-explored.
Harvey, Richard D. (Saint Louis University) firstname.lastname@example.org
THE IMPORTANCE OF COLLECTIVE IDENTITY IN THE UTILIZATION OF SELF-PROTECTIVE STRATEGIES AMONG STIGMATIZED GROUP MEMBERS
Across six empirical studies on social stigma, identity operates as both a mediator and moderator variable.
These studies focus on a variety of stigmatized groups including: women, African-Americans, Native-Americans, and acutely stigmatized white men.
Results suggest that the relationship between the usage of Attribution to Prejudice, Social Comparison, and Devaluing strategies and self-esteem protection/enhancement is mediated by enhanced identity.
Furthermore, results demonstrate that group identity moderates the relationship between strategy usage and effectiveness.
While all groups equally utilize strategies, they are only effective for those with relatively higher group identity.
Other correlates of identity are also presented.
Havill, Valerie L. (University of Georgia); & Halverson, Charles F. (University of Georgia) email@example.com
CROSS-AGE AND CROSS NATIONAL MEASURES OF CHILD PERSONALITY
Over the past ten years we have been engaging in a cross-national collaboration to develop personality instruments appropriate for children.
Our instruments are based on more than a thousand interviews where parents and teachers in seven countries were asked to describe their children and students in their own words.
In this way we attempted to create a complete taxonomy of free-language descriptions of personality in childhood (3yrs-13yrs).
To date, over 2,500 Chinese, Greek and U.S. parents have rated their children on the International Inventory of Childhood Individual Differences (IICID).
We will present the factor structure that emerged from these data.
Comparisons will be made across age, gender and country of origin.
Correlations among IICID dimensions and other temperament, behavior problem and personality scales will be discussed in terms of convergent and divergent validity.
Hendrix, Lewellyn (Southern Illinois University-Carbondale) firstname.lastname@example.org
A CROSS-CULTURAL EXPLORATION OF MATE SELECTION
The literature on free choice and parental arrangement of marriage is examined and critiqued.
While there is substantial research and theory on marital transactions, the question of personal voice in marrying has received less attention.
Past speculations on the correlates of free choice of spouse are tested using the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, where possible.
Holland, Colby ˝ See Frazzini, John for Abstract.
Ito, Chifumi ˝ See Stiles, Deborah A. for Abstract.
Jameson, Kimberly A. (University of California, San Diego) email@example.com
WHAT CROSS-CULTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF COLOR NAMING AND COLOR PERCEPTION TELL US ABOUT COGNITIVEUNIVERSALS
Current theory on color categorization and naming, (i.e., Berlin & Kay and colleagues) suggests that pan-human universal neural processes are the basis for similar color naming and categorization behaviors across cultures.
Recent color vision evidence suggests that initial stages of retinal color processing can substantially differ both intra-culturally and cross-culturally.
How does the existence of divergent retinal processing impact theories of color naming and -salience that use post retinal-processing as the explanation for within-culture color-naming coherence?
And, are the mechanisms that support cultural coherence similar to those that account for cross-cultural universality?
Pan-human cognitive processing is suggested as a plausible basis for universal color behaviors.
Jameson, Kimberly A. ˝ See Alvarado, Nancy for Abstract.
Jankowiak, William (University of Nevada) firstname.lastname@example.org; Joiner, Amber (University of Maryland); & Knalb, Cynthia (California State University, Long Beach)
URBAN CHINESE CHILDHOOD AGGRESSION: A NORTH/SOUTH COMPARISON
Anthropological studies of aggression have been surprisingly sparse.
This is especially true of research conducted in the People's Republic of China.
To date, there is no study of Chinese aggression.
In 2000, we designed and conducted field research on childhood aggression as it is manifested in two different urban settings: Chengdu and Hunhot in the PRC.
In each city, a total of 82 children (46 males and 46 females), were observed engaged in six interaction sets.
Each targeted child was observed in a naturalistic setting for a minimum of six specific interactions.
The details of an individual's behavior were recorded as he or she shifted between social episodes.
In all, a total of 984 behavioral interactions were recorded.
The observational data was supplemented with in depth interviews with 24 parents in Chengdu and 38 in Hunhot.
The paper will explore the significance of these findings for understanding Chinese society as well as for understanding comparative child development around the world.
Johnson, Jim (Pennsylvania State University); & Chang, Pei-Yu (National Taipei College of Nursing, Taiwan)
PLAY, IMAGINATION, CREATIVITY AND KINDERGARTENS IN TAIWAN
This presentation highlights the findings of a survey research study of 116 teachers in three Taiwanese cities.
Beliefs and attitudes of kindergarten teachers are reported concerning the perceived importance of various educational activities for young children.
A specially devised 58-item questionnaire was used to generate the data.
The questionnaire presented hypothetical school situations to which teachers were asked to respond to groups of follow-up items showing the extent of their agreement/disagreement to individual items using a five point Likert-type scale.
These hypothetical situations covered the following areas:
(a) the purpose of kindergarten education,
(b) relation of play with learning,
(c) role of kindergarten teachers,
(d) value of play in preparing children for the future,
(e) value of pretend play and role playing,
(f) value of story-telling,
(g) importance of creativity,
(h) the importance of engagement in multi-symbolic, multimedia activity, and
(i) the value of social play in learning.
Questionnaire clusters are intercorrelated and related to personal and demographic characteristics of the teachers.
Findings are discussed in connection with the views of parents and teacher educators in Taiwan, and are interpreted using a cultural and contextual model of play and kindergarten education in Taiwan.
Joiner, Amber ˝ See Jankowiak, William for Abstract.
Kawakami, Holly S. (University of New Mexico) email@example.com
COMMUNICATING TIME CONCEPTS IN INTERCULTURAL COMMUNIATION EDUCATION: EXPLICATION OF A KINETIC EXERCISE
Within the nonverbal realm of time, rhythm and synchrony, TIME is a concept so basic ˝ Edward T. Hall called it the hardware of culture -- that it is difficult to isolate and study.
In this presentation, I explain the use, purpose, procedure, and debriefing of the kinetic exercise developed in order to explore, through nonverbal means, the concept of TIME.
Deceptively simple, the TIME kinetic exercise uses the mind/body connection and encourages articulation of bodily experience.
The rich insights, metaphors, and scope of connections that are related by diverse participants point to the potential of this exercise as a learning tool.
Kay, Paul (University of California, Berkeley) firstname.lastname@example.org
COLOR CATEGORIES ARE NOT ARBITRARY: NEW EVIDENCE, OLD EVIDENCE AND MISSING EVIDENCE
Recent, well-controlled studies in cross-language color naming and cross-language tests of color memory and learning have made important contributions to our understanding of which aspects of cross-language color naming and non-verbal response to colors may and may not be attributed to pan-human properties of color appearance.
Valuable as these results are, some studies have led to more relativistic conclusions than their results justify.
In particular these conclusions ignore the issue of whether there exists across languages a statistical bias toward basing color terminology systems on black, white, and the four Hering opponent hues.
Keller, Heidi (University of California, Los Angeles) email@example.com
PARENTAL ETHNOTHEORIES. BIO ˝ CULTURAL CONCEPTIONS OF PARENTAL CARE WITH SMALL BABIES
Parental ideas concerning infant care can be regarded as links between ecocontextual demands and parental behavioral practices.
It is assumed that the contextual parameters inform evolved panhuman characteristics in order to develop contextually appropriate behavioral strategies for socialization of competence in a respective environment.
It is assumed that the phylogenetically evolved traits of competitiveness and altruism are reflected in the cultural values of independence and interdependence.
Accordingly, the conceptions of early parental care should focus differentially on caretaking patterns supporting these goals across cultures.
In this presentation, women's ethnotheories from different ecocultural backgrounds (rural African Nso, urban Germans and urban Indians) were assessed with a videobased procedure.
Women's comments were analyzed with a predefined coding system with respect to parenting systems and interactional mechanisms.
The results indicate that both independent and interrelated conceptions of parenting are prevalent in all cultural samples, but that they reflect differences in the predicted directions as well.
Statements classified as expressing interdependent goals, were lowest in the German sample, whereas statements classified as independent were highest.
Khalturina, Darya (Russian Academy of Sciences) firstname.lastname@example.org
FEMALE STATUS AND WARFARE IN CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: A RECONSIDERATION
Our tests have produced such a considerable amount of significant negative correlations between Whyte's female status indicators and the variables measuring warfare intensity that could not be explained purely by chance.
We consider socialization for aggression (which tends to develop in societies with high warfare intensity) as one of the strongest intermediate factors as it turns out to lead to higher frequencies of wife beating (Gamma = +1.0; p = 0.03).
A higher level of separation between genders, which is common for societies with higher warfare frequency appears to be another channel of decreasing female power.
Polygyny, which usually results from extensive warfare (because of skewed gender balance), also decreases female kin power (Gamma = +0.8; Rho = +0.5; p = 0.0000001 [one tailed]).
Kleiner, Robert J. (Temple University) Rklei26436@aol.com; & S»rensen, Tom (University of Oslo, Norway) email@example.com
SYMPOSIUM ON TRADITIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH AND EXPLANATIONS ABOUT MENTAL ILLNESS AND QUALITY OF LIFE: REEVALUATIONS AND REFORMULATIONS
All of the participants were trained in their respective disciplines in the prevailing thinking and research methods prevalent at those times for the study of mental illness and quality of life.
However, with experience over the years, working with close colleagues and with each other, we have come to look at these traditional ways of thinking and working somewhat critically and have developed new explanatory models and methods that have led to innovative research and applied programs.
These have emerged from our collective interdisciplinary perspective and comparative social, psychological/psychiatric and cultural research over the years.
Some of these ideas have been presented at these and other meetings with specific foci on the specific research problems.
Here, we want to present the ideas in perspective and show some of the new research and applied programs that have evolved in the process.
Kleiner, Robert J. (Temple University) Rklei26436@aol.com; S»rensen, Tom (University of Oslo, Norway) firstname.lastname@example.org; & Dalgard, Odd Steffen (Professor Emeritus, University of Oslo, Norway)
THE CHANGING ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS IN UNDERSTANDING TREATMENT, AND SOCIAL PLANNING FOR THE ENHANCEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH
This paper will critically discuss the issues and findings in traditional demographic studies of mental disorder, especially as it relates to migration, social mobility, and cultural integration.
This discussion is based on the collective research of the authors that led to changes and modifications in the kind of research and action that they subsequently did, and the increasing role of psychological/psychiatric, sociological, and anthropological perspectives, and their concurrent effects on our understanding of the dynamics of mental disorder.
We will also discuss how our emphasis and research on cause, treatment and planning moved from a focus on individual psychological characteristics to a consideration of personal (proximal) social interaction (i.e., personal social networks), and then to community properties and dynamics.
With our changing research, the role of testable theoretical perspectives plays an increasing role.
Kleiner, Robert J. ˝ See Klepp, Olav Martin; Okeke, Barnabas; & S»rensen, Tom for Abstracts.
Klepp, Olav Martin (Ulleval Hospital, Norway); S»rensen, Tom (University of Oslo, Norway) email@example.com; Kleiner, Robert J. (Temple University) Rklei26436@aol.com; Mastekaasa, Arne (University of Oslo, Norway); Sandanger, Inger (University of Oslo, Norway); & B»e, Nils (Retired Practitioner)
THE MENTAL HEALTH SOCIAL INTEGRATION MODEL MODIFIED BY THE SENSE OF COHERENCE
A. H. Leighton showed the effects of integration/disintegration of local communities on mental health.
Tom S»rensen in local communities in Northern Norway identified nine dimensions of community integration related to mental health.
The salutogenic approach by A. Antonovsky has in several studies been shown to provide a useful measure in what he calls the sense of coherence to determine how people in adverse life-conditions combat and cope with stress and maintain health and resist physical and mental illness.
In this paper we discuss and intend to show how levels of sense of coherence measured in a survey of seven local communities in Northern Norway (n=950) interact with and modify the effects of community integration/disintegration dimensions on mental health as measured by symptoms and well-being.
Klepp, Olav Martin ˝ See S»rensen, Tom for Abstract.
Knalb, Cynthia ˝ See Jankowiak, William for Abstract.
Knibb, Kraig - See Divale, William for Abstract.
Knight, Nicola (University of Michigan) firstname.lastname@example.org; Barrett, Justin (University of Michigan); Atran, Scott (University of Michigan); & UcĚn Ek', Edilberto (University of Michigan)
CHILDREN'S UNDERSTANDING OF SUPERNATURAL MINDS: EVIDENCE FROM THE YUCATEC MAYA
It is sometimes assumed that children use the human mind as a model for understanding other kinds of minds; this may be called the ýanthropomorphic theory of mindţ hypothesis.
However, the work of Barrett and colleagues among strongly religious Protestant communities in the USA has shown that children, based on the attribute of omniscience, perceive the mind of God differently.
The present work offers further evidence against the anthropomorphic hypothesis.
A series of experiments shows that Yucatec Maya children strongly differentiate between the mind of a human being and the mind of the Catholic God, and between the latter and the minds of indigenous supernatural beings.
Koh, Jessie B. K. (National University of Singapore) email@example.com; & Chang, Weining C. (National University of Singapore) firstname.lastname@example.org
A PRELIMINARY EXPLORATION OF THE CONCEPT OF WARMTH IN CHINESE PARENTING
The parent- or child-centered dimension commonly used in contemporary parenting studies has characterized Asian parenting as authoritarian - low in warmth and high in control.
This characterization of Chinese parents has increasingly been found to be limited in predicting child outcomes.
This led to the question whether the dimension of centredness is applicable to parenting of the Chinese.
The present study explored the dimensions of Chinese parenting by proposing the indigenous concepts of "yan" (strictness, involving control) and "ci" (kindness or warmth).
Qualitative data from interviews with parents and children revealed that in addition to the dimension of control (yan), a dimension of warmth (ci) is also evident.
This warmth dimension is characterized by both universal expressions, such as hugging and kissing for the younger children, as well as culture-specific manifestations, such as physical nurturance and making life decisions for the children.
Both dimensions are highly parent- centered.
Findings suggest that the Chinese conceptualization and manifestations of parenting may possess culture-specific elements that could not be captured in the existing two-dimensional framework in contemporary parenting research.
Kolar, V. ˝ See Parmar, Parminder for Abstract.
Korotayev, Andrey (Moscow School of Economics-State University) email@example.com
FEMALE STATUS AND EXTERNAL WARFARE
My cross-cultural tests have shown that purely external warfare (in absence of internal warfare) tends to increase the female status (e.g. in these cases frequency of external warfare correlates positively with the female gender of leaders of kinship groups or extended families
[Rho = +0.5, p = 0.02], negatively with wife to husband institutionalized deference [Rho = 0.6, p = 0.002], positively with the female property control scale [Rho = +0.4, p = 0.01], etc).
This appears to be accounted for (at least partly) by matrilocality and female contribution to subsistence which turn out to correlate positively both with the purely external warfare and the status of women.
Korotayev, Andrey (Moscow School of Economics-State University) ˝ See Ember, Carol R. for Abstract.
Kunasheva, Marianna (State University Higher School of Moscow) firstname.lastname@example.org
FAMILY SIZE AND ISLAM
Earlier cross-cultural theories explained family type with cultural complexity, subsistence type, agriculture and sedendarism.
Others connected it with absence or presence of female outdoor labor, and with factors, which cause outside activities of a father.
I decided to calculate if Islamization influences family size.
The tests were done on worldwide sample of societies, which are described in the Ethnographic Atlas database.
The first test showed no connection between these two factors.
However, there is a significant positive correlation (Gamma = + 0.42; p = 0.001) between the presence of Islam, on the one hand, and family size, on the other, over state societies (i.e. having more than two levels of political integration over community).
The paper attempts to account for this correlation.
Larson, Reed ˝ See Saraswathi, T.S. for Abstract.
Leaf, Linaya - See de Silva, Suneetha S. for Abstract.
Lee, Hyo-Seon - See Bartmann, Sylke for Abstract.
Levinson, Ruth Andrea (Skidmore College) email@example.com; & Erchak, Gerald M. (Skidmore College) firstname.lastname@example.org
CULTURAL CONTEXT AND THE IMPACT ON BRAZILIAN ADOLESCENT SEXUAL PRACTICES AND CONDOM USE
AIDS prevention research demonstrates that theoretically driven HIV prevention programs can be tailored to specific cultures.
Levinson's Contraceptive Self-Efficacy (CSE) and Condom Self-Efficacy (CDSE) Scales have been extensively tested in the U.S. and have been shown to predict condom use.
This paper reports CDSE research in Salvador, Brazil.
The data are derived from structured interviews with focus groups (3 boys', 3 girls') totaling 76 teenagers attending three high schools.
The participants constitute a sub-sample from 400 questionnaire respondents.
The data reveal patterns in cultural practices, social-psychological beliefs, and gender dynamics that are critical inhibitors of condom use.
Liedka, Raymond V. - See Useem, Bert for Abstract.
MacLaury, Robert E. (University of Pennsylvania) email@example.com
SO-CALLED "BRIGHTNESS" CATEGORIES IN COLOR ETHNOGRAPHY: POTENTIALS FOR CRT TECHNOLOGY IN FIELD WORK AND CATEGORIZATION RESEARCH
The World Color Survey and other reports show that minor and tribal languages name reputed brightness categories that span the color spectrum.
Different languages construe them with substantial variability.
Yet the composition of these categories is unexplored.
Equipment and methods are suggested that would probe this disappearing resource for the benefit of color ethnography and psychological inquiry into the nature of categorization.
Maehr, Michael D. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) firstname.lastname@example.org
A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF LEISURE BEHAVIOR AND ITS ADAPTIVE SIGNIFICANCE
In the present study I have used the 60 culture Probability Sample Files to explore treatment of the leisure concept, its validity for cross-cultural research and patterns of behavior suggestive of possible adaptive qualities of leisure.
Data on relaxation reported in specific leisure contexts, aspects of games of physical skill, and social contexts for dances and feasts are presented.
Data analysis shows strong patterns of behavior that western researchers typically recognize as leisure exists.
This is discussed in terms of possible biases of western conceptions of leisure behavior and of literature that has addressed adaptive qualities of leisure and expressive behavior.
Future suggestions for cross-cultural research on the adaptive qualities of leisure and expressive behavior are also given.
Manlove, Robert F. (City College of San Francisco) email@example.com
THE NEUROLOGICAL BASIS OF CULTURE
Evidence from cross-cultural psychology suggests that individuals construct their culture by etaphorically linking the satisfaction of one evolutionary need (e.g., nurturance) with another (e.g., affiliation) in a manner that is reinforced by social interaction as well as evolutionary productivity.
Similarly, recent brain imaging studies (fMRI, PET and SPECT) and lesion studies suggest that, when an individual is resolving a cultural issue, the anterior cingulate gyrus acts in executive function to link information in diverse parts of the brain and to monitor specific responses to specific situations.
The present article explores the possibility that these are the same phenomenon, that culture is the product of metaphorical mapping in the structures of the anterior cingulate performed for the satisfaction of evolutionary needs.
The implications of this are explored, particularly with reference to mental health and culturally generated mental illness, and new directions in both brain imaging and cross-cultural psychology are proposed.
Mastekaasa, Arne ˝ See Klepp, Olav Martin; & S»rensen, Tom for Abstracts.
Mathur, Smita (State University of New York, New Paltz) firstname.lastname@example.org
Serial Monogamy in Indian Families: A Cross Cultural and Intergenerational Perspective
The study examines attitudes related to divorce and serial monogamy in Indian families.
It explores cross cultural and intergenerational differences in attitudes related to divorce among urban, affluent, educated immigrant and non-immigrant Asian Indians.
The attitudes related to divorce and serial monogamy are examined in the context of the rapid demographic changes in family life in urban India, formation and maintenance of ethnic identity and acculturation among Indian immigrants.
A total of 307 subjects were interviewed in America and India.
The study revealed a significant increase in acceptance and advocacy for serial monogamy among second-generation Indian Immigrant children.
Maintenance and strength of ethnic identification was not significantly related to acceptance of serial monogamy.
McConatha, Jasmin T. ˝ See Stoller, Paul for Abstract.
Militarev, Alexander (Russian State University for the Humanities) email@example.com
CROSS-CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS
It was the founder of cross-cultural anthropological tradition in the USA, George Peter Murdock, who in 1949 worked out a detailed methodology of reconstructing social structures of ancient cultures on the basis of synchronic cross-cultural anthropological and linguistic (kinship terminology) data.
In 1959 he applied this methodology on a massive scale to the study of African cultures.
However, most cross-cultural anthropologists appear to be sure that this tradition virtually died out after that.
However, in the last two decades, a parallel methodology of cross-cultural research has been successfully developed by comparative linguists, above all by the Moscow school of comparative linguistics.
In my paper I will present some of the results of its application to the study of Afrasian (Afroasiatic, Semito-Hamitic) cultures.
It will deal with reconstructed proto-Afrasian (the proto-Afrasian language can be roughly dated to the 9-10th mill. b.c.e. according to new methods in glottochronology by S.Starostin) and proto-Semitic (late 5th mill. b.c.e.) terminology in the social and cultural spheres.
Mirny, Anna (Harvard University) firstname.lastname@example.org
RUSSIAN ADOLESCENTS IN AMERICAN SCHOOLS: PERSONAL EXPERIENCES OF SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF IMMIGRATION
Social adaptation of Russian immigrant adolescents to the peer cultures of American schools is explored using theoretical frameworks of developmental and relational psychology.
Qualitative by design the study is based on in-depth interviews with 12 adolescent immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.
How each adolescent handles his/her transition from the school peer culture in FSU to one in the US is in the focus of this research.
More broadly the study engages with the question of immigrant transition from more collectivist to more individualist environment at the intersection with identity formation, and psychosocial maturity-the major aspects of human development at adolescence.
Mizera, Luule (Sľdertľrn University) Luule.Mizera@sh.se
COLLECTIVISM IN ESTONIA ˝ FACT OR FICTION?
In a number of articles published in recent years Estonians have been claimed to represent a culture of collectivistic values and tendencies.
Some of the writings base their arguments on some fifty years of Marxist-Leninist ideology in the Baltic countries after the World War II.
On the other hand, cross-cultural empirical studies with samples from Estonia and countries such as the USA, Russia, and Finland have found a relatively meager tendency towards collectivism in Estonia.
This paper presents a small comparative study of Estonians and Latvians, striving to shed some light on the "Soviet vs national culture" debate.
Monaghan, Pamela G. (Case Western Reserve University) email@example.com
A RESERVATION NURSING HOME: CULTURAL CONTINUITY AND QUALITY OF CARE IN AN INSTITUTIONAL SETTING
Preserving the dignity of Indian elders is important.
Equally important is preserving their mental, physical and emotional health.
This presentation explores both "quality of care and "cultural continuity" issues in an institutional setting located on reservation land.
Interviews were completed at a reservation nursing home with the staff, residents, and other elders who used the facility as a senior center.
Content analysis was conducted and thematic categories were developed.
Additionally, participant observation was used to provide the researcher with direct experience of daily events at the Center.
Findings show that the tribe has incorporated cultural continuity while maintaining high-quality care within an institutional setting.
Moore, Carmella C. (University of California, Irvine) firstname.lastname@example.org; & Romney, A. Kimball (University of California, Irvine) email@example.com
REPRESENTING LINGUISTIC, PERCEPTUAL, AND PHYSICAL PHENOMENA IN A COMMON SPACE: THE DOMAIN OF COLOR
This paper presents methods and findings of representing data derived from linguistic and perceptual judgments, as well as physical sources in a common three-dimensional Euclidean space.
The communality among the three structures accounts for the major part of the total variability in the data.
We also find sizable individual variation within linguistic and perceptual structures among respondents.
We discuss implications of the findings for a number of theories, including linguistic relativism versus universalism, evolution, evolutionary psychology,
and questions of how perception and language evolve so as to provide accurate representations of the real world.
Moreno, Ilina Todorova (Urban Behavioral Health Care Institute, St. Louis MO) IlinaM@aol.com; & Gibbons, Judith L. (Saint Louis University) firstname.lastname@example.org
HOW ALBANIAN CHILDREN FROM KOSOVO EXPERIENCED THE WAR
The study is based on work with Albanian refugee families from Kosovo, settled in campus and villages in Macedonia.
During and after the war a Trauma Recovery Project was conducted with 79 families and 171 children.
Ten questions were asked during the brief interview sessions with each child as assessment of his/her understanding of the war in Kosovo.
The majority of children were witnesses of massacres, killing and torture.
Children's perceptions of the war will be discussed in the context of interaction between some regular developmental phenomena and the severity of their traumatic experiences.
Suggestions for future relief and aid workers with children victims of war will be given.
Muller, Beth ˝ See Parmar, Parminder for Abstract.
Munroe, Robert L. (Pitzer College) Lee_Munroe@pitzer.edu; Fought, John (Pomona College); Fought, Carmen (Pitzer College); & Good, Erin (University of Arizona)
SONORITY AND CLIMATE IN A WORLD SAMPLE OF LANGUAGES
This study represents the sixth in a series concerning regularities in the phonetic/phonemic sound systems of the world's languages.
Here we show that robust speech signaling--that is, high-sonority sounds such as the low back vowel [a]--can be found proportionately more often in warm/hot areas like the Insular Pacific; and that low-sonority sounds--most of the consonants--can be found more often in the cold-climate areas of the earth.
We explicate our findings in terms of a hypothesis about communicative efficiency in outdoor settings.
We also consider and test alternative theoretical formulations proposed by Carol and Melvin Ember.
Naito, Takashi (Ochanomizu University, Japan); & Gielen, Uwe P. (St. Francis College) email@example.com
THE CHANGING JAPANESE FAMILY: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PORTRAIT
Based on cross-cultural as well as indigenous investigations, we sketch the cultural context, historical evolution, and current situation of the Japanese family according to the findings of historical studies, developmental psychology research, sociological surveys, and investigations of pertinent folklore.
Special emphasis is placed on the role of steadily changing gender roles together with the importance of generational differences in regards to attitudes, values, and behavior patterns.
Given the rapid decline of fertility rates to the present, very low level, it is argued that dysfunctional gender roles and the cultural priority of economic considerations over the interests of a healthy family life have led to a society-wide situation of crisis.
Okeke, Barnabas (Department of Health, Philadelphia PA) firstname.lastname@example.org; & Kleiner, Robert J. (Temple University) Rklei26436@aol.com
MIGRATION IN TIMES OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL CRISES
We will show that the migration experience is a much more complex phenomenon then it has been considered in the past.
In opposition to classical and traditional definitions of the migration experience, which define migratory in simple terms such as place of birth, we needed to redefine the migration experience by taking into account where the individual is socialized.
Taking into account place of socialization brings into play what the individual learned during the years of socialization and prior to migrating.
This involves dealing with the psychological, societal, and cultural realities impeding on migrants and natives.
The "Triple Reality Model" of Migration considers the interaction of the psychological reality of the individual, the social realities of one's group(s), and the objective reality.
The discrepancies between the realities create stressful situations for both migrants and natives, lead to heightened levels of mental disorder and lowered quality of life.
When there is a crisis like the event connected with the bombing of the World Trade Center, there is a redefinition of realities.
The impact takes a toll on both the migrant and the former receiving population.
Palacios, Jesus ˝ See Parmar, Parminder for Abstract.
Parmar, Parminder (University of Connecticut) email@example.com; Muller, Beth (University of Connecticut); Blom, Marjolijn (Netherlands); Super, C. M. (University of Connecticut); Welles-Nystrom, B. (Sweden); Palacios, Jesus (Spain); Axia, G. (Italy); Zylics, P. O. (Poland); & Kolar, V. (Australia)
SIBLING RELATIONSHIPS ACROSS GENERATIONS IN SEVEN WESTERN COUNTRIES
Sibling relationships are often neglected component of family assessment and the ways these relationships affect children's development.
The complexity and diversity in relationships between siblings can either support or hinder a child's development in significant ways.
The present research compares sibling relationships in two generations in seven western countries, explores and identifies the cultural experiences of parents' sibling relationships and how these experiences affect the parenting strategies and childrearing customs for successive generations.
Piehl, Anne ˝ See Useem, Bert for Abstract.
Ramakrishnan, Manoharan ˝ See Ward, Colleen for Abstract.
Ramage, Katherine (University Rafael Land╠var, Guatemala) firstname.lastname@example.org
SELF-PERCEPTIONS OF SPANISH LANGUAGE USE BY INDIGENOUS UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: PRELIMINARY FINDINGS
This presentation will focus on preliminary findings of the first phase of a two-part study of attitudes towards the Spanish language usage of indigenous university students in Guatemala.
The session will present preliminary findings on students' own perceptions of their competence and comfort using Spanish in a variety of contexts, their perceptions of others' judgments about them based on their Spanish usage, and their perceptions of specific aspects of their Spanish language usage (if any) which trigger judgments.
The data will be drawn from structured interviews with approximately 25 indigenous university students from different native language backgrounds.
Raybeck, Douglas (Hamilton College) email@example.com; & de Munck, Victor C. (State University of New York, New Paltz) firstname.lastname@example.org
THE QUINCUNX OF KELANTAN: THIRTY YEARS OF SOCIOCULTURAL CHANGE
This paper presents the results of two semantic differential studies that deal with cultural values and modernization and that were carried out in Kelantan, Malaysia.
The first was completed in 1969 and the second in 2001.
The results of these studies provide a finely textured means to assess both the direction and the degree of sociocultural change in what has been a very traditional, conservative, Islamic, peasant community, but which now, with some notable exceptions, appears to be rapidly modernizing.
Raybeck Douglas ˝ See Weigl, Robert for Abstract.
Roberson, Debi (University of Essex, UK) email@example.com
ARE PERCEPTUAL CATEGORIES REALLY CONCEPTUAL?
The argument that language and thought are, at best, only loosely connected, has been based on evidence from the color domain suggesting that, while color terms vary widely across different cultures, the underlying cognitive representations do not.
Contrary to this argument, we present a range of evidence supporting the linguistic relativity of color and other perceptual categories, such as shape and facial expression.
Cross-cultural investigations in New Guinea and Africa have failed to find evidence of a set of universal color (or shape) categories.
Moreover, in native English speakers, the greater accuracy normally observed for cross-category judgments compared to within-category judgments disappeared under verbal interference (both for color and facial expressions).
This suggests that Categorical Perception is critically dependent on the availability of a verbal code.
Finally, the loss of labels radically impaired the ability of an anomic patient, suffering from a naming disorder, to categorize colors or facial expressions.
We conclude that language and thought are tightly linked.
Roberts, Aki ˝ See Useem, Bert for Abstract.
Roberts, John M., Jr. (University of New Mexico) firstname.lastname@example.org
ENDOGAMY: PROPENSITIES AND CONSTRAINTS
To some extent, endogamy data reflect group marital propensities.
But structural constraints-such as group sizes-also play an important role in producing observed data, by affecting opportunities for contact between partners with particular characteristics.
This paper uses a recent American data set to examine group marital propensities net of opportunities for contact.
Romney, A. Kimball ˝ See Moore, Carmella C. for Abstract.
Roopnarine, Jaipaul L. ˝ See Shin, Meera for Abstract.
Rudy, Duane (University of Missouri-Columbia) email@example.com
PARENTAL AUTHORITATIVENESS AND AUTHORITARIANISM IN INDIVIDUALIST AND COLLECTIVIST GROUPS: DO THE CONSTRUCTS HOLD ACROSS CULTURES?
This study explored cultural differences in parental cognitions, authoritarianism and authoritativeness, as well as child outcomes.
Thirty-four Canadian mothers and children of a collectivist background and 32 Anglo-Canadian mothers and children between 8 and 12 participated in the study.
Collectivists scored higher on authoritarianism, but the groups did not differ on authoritativeness and child outcomes.
Within the Anglo sample, authoritarianism and authoritativeness were negatively related; in the collectivist sample parenting styles were unrelated.
In the Anglo sample, authoritativeness tended to be more strongly related to child outcomes than authoritarianism; the opposite relationship held in the collectivist sample.
The implications of these patterns are discussed.
Rutt, Candace D. ˝ See Coleman, Karen J. for Abstract.
Salan, Debra A. (Paul Bearwald School of Social Work, Hebrew University of Jerusalem) firstname.lastname@example.org
UNDERSTANDING THE EXPERIENCES OF ISRAELI DRUG-ADDICTED WOMEN IN TREATMENT: A CROSS-CULTURAL VIEW
This study sought to explain how Israeli drug-addicted women understand the context and meaning of their treatment experiences.
Women in treatment were interviewed in depth and audiotaped.
The data were analyzed using grounded theory, and emerging themes were confirmed during a follow-up interview.
Results showed that the interviewees, who were all members of cultural minorities, experience both the benefits and the limitations of treatment.
A long-term therapeutic relationship with a female therapist was crucial in addressing the aftermath of sexual and physical abuse, prostitution and exploitation, relationship with children, shame, guilt, and helplessness.
They reported that treatment was helpful in many areas of personal development and rehabilitation, but unable to mediate the harmful effects of social stigma in their lives.
Sandanger, Inger ˝ See Klepp, Olav Martin; & S»rensen, Tom for Abstracts.
Saraswathi, T.S. (University of Baroda, India); Sayajirao, Maharaja (University of Baroda, India) email@example.com; & Larson, Reed (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
ADOLESCENCE IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE: NEED FOR CULTURE SENSITIVE SOCIAL POLICIES
A recent review of literature on adolescence in eight regions of the world (Brown, Larson & Saraswathi, in press) highlights the diversity of contexts in which young people are growing up today.
Since adolescents form a substantial segment of the population in most regions of the world, careful social policy planning taking into account context specificity and cultural relevance can pay rich dividends to concerned nations.
There is adequate reason to raise hopes based on the growth of nations as evidenced in the Human Development reports of the 90s (UNDP).
Yet, several macro processes threaten adolescents' well-being.
These include uncontrolled population growth in developing countries with consequent crowding and competition for limited resources, leading to the vicious cycle of poverty, population, and environmental degradation (PPE, Unicef, 1994).
These problems are compounded by the global market economy that even while providing opportunities for many youth, also erodes opportunities for others.
The North-South divide provides the most startling contrast.
More than three quarters of the world's people live in developing countries, but they enjoy only 14 % of the world's income and 18% the goods and resources, while the richest 20 % have 86 % of the global income and 82 % share in consumption (UNDP, 1999).
Such a disparity provides adequate rationale for context specific social policies.
The World Programme of Action for Youth in the Year 2000 and Beyond Presents the goals for youth policy formulated by United Nations in 1996.
The emphasis here is on education, employment opportunities, food and nutrition, health care and human rights.
The amount of freedom and choice adolescents and youth have in the attainment of the specified goals depends on several contextual and cultural factors.
Data based policy planning can help set meaningful priorities.
Sayajirao, Maharaja ˝ See Saraswathi, T.S. for Abstract.
Schlegel, Victoria ˝ See Caulkins, D. Douglas for Abstract.
Sebben, Daniel J. ˝ See Stiles, Deborah A. for Abstract.
Seymour, Susan (Pitzer College) firstname.lastname@example.org
MULTIPLE CARETAKING OF INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN: A CHALLENGE FOR WESTERN THEORIES OF CHILD DEVELOPOMENT
This paper will address a bias of Western theories of child development: i.e., that the mother is a child's principal or exclusive caretaker.
From that assumption follow numerous hypotheses regarding women as good and bad nurturers, figures of early attachment, identification, and separation by infants and young children.
First, the paper will briefly review some of the work that documents multiple childcare in different parts of the world and then ask the question:
How do we conceptualize what happens in early child development when there is no one principal caretaker?
Specifically, it will address this question in the context of India, utilizing my own studies and those of others.
Shimojo, Eiko (Bunkyo Women's University, Japan) email@example.com; & Shimojo, Shinsuke (California Institute of Technology) firstname.lastname@example.org
ATTRACTIVENESS OF JAPANESE AND AMERICAN TV COMMERCIALS IN RELATION TO SELF-ESTEEM AND GROUP SELF-ESTEEM
We examined how Japanese participants perceive and evaluate TV commercials broadcasted in Japan & the US.
We further correlated self-esteem and group self-esteem with the CM attractiveness.
Participants showed significantly higher group self-esteem than self-esteem (p<.001).
Those with high group self-esteem gave significantly higher attractiveness ratings to Japanese TV commercials than American commercials (p<.01).
Nonetheless, participants with high self-esteem gave significantly higher attractiveness ratings to American commercials than to Japanese commercials (p<.05).
Results are consistent with the known cultural differences in self-esteem and group self-esteem, yet indicating that attractiveness judgment in individuals correlate with (group) self-esteem measures.
Shimojo, Shinsuke ˝ See Shimojo, Eiko for Abstract.
Shin, Meera (Kean University) email@example.com; & Roopnarine, Jaipaul L. (Syracuse University)
DEVOTION AND DISCIPLINE: KOREAN MOTHERS' MODE OF CHILDREARING
Following the tenets of sociohistorical and ecocultural theories of parent-child socialization, this study attempted to build on previous work on parenting across cultures by examining mothers' beliefs about childhood independence and characteristics of a desirable mother, and by exploring contemporary childrearing patterns in Korean families.
A sample of 310 Korean mothers of 3- to 6-year-old children were administered the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control: Rohner, 1991) and the Parental Devotion and Parental Discipline Questionnaire (PDPD) in order to assess parental acceptance, control, devotion, and discipline simultaneously.
Subsequently, interviews were conducted on a subgroup of 90 mothers.
Factor analyses conducted on the two scales indicated that both showed good internal consistency, and that the factor structure on the PARQ/Control was fairly consistent with previous research; two factors emerged on the PDPD scale.
A cluster analysis performed on the factors obtained on the PARQ/Control and the PDPD scales revealed that if data were gathered using the PARQ/Control only, an incomplete picture on Korean mothers' parenting styles would have emerged.
That is, they would have been viewed as neglecting/rejecting or permissive parents.
With the inclusion of the PDPD scale, a more accurate appraisal of contemporary Korean mothers' parenting styles was obtained.
The qualitative analyses suggested that Korean mothers value individual agency within a collectivistic orientation.
Their responses to what are the desirable characteristics of a mother included: devotion (41.3%), devotion with discipline (31.2%), authoritative parenting (20%), and expressing individuality (7.8%).
The data are discussed in terms of the cultural meaning of parenting vis-ř-vis established paradigms on childrearing and maternal ideas about development.
Sidanius, James ˝ See Thomsen, Lotte for Abstract.
Sidorowicz, Laura S. (Nassau Community College, SUNY) firstname.lastname@example.org
CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF IDENTITY AMONG THAI AND AMERICAN WOMEN
A cross-cultural study was conducted in Thailand and the United States examining aspects of identity.
Data were collected through the use of questionnaires and personal interviews.
Issues pertaining to emotions, religion, community, interpersonal attraction, family and self-concept will be explored in relation to women's identity.
Aspects of understanding and comparing both cultures will be addressed in relation to collectivism and individualism.
Skorikov, Vladimir B. (University of Hawaii˝Hilo) email@example.com; & Hamamoto, Deborah N. (University of Hawaii˝Hilo) firstname.lastname@example.org
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ETHNIC AND NATIONAL IDENTIFICATION: THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF ETHNICITY
Research on the relationships between different levels of social identity has been inconsistent:
Some studies found that identifications with an ethnic group preclude individuals from identifying with a nation, whereas others confirmed frequently theorized orthogonality of the two constructs.
Using a highly ethnically diverse sample (N=430), we showed that this inconsistency could be explained by the mediating effect of the ethnic group's societal status.
We found that both ethnic and national identification as well as their relationship were different in ethnic majority vs. minority vs. mixed participants.
In contrast, there were no mediating effects of particular ethnicity, cultural identification, or individual identity status.
Implications for cross-cultural research are discussed.
S»rensen, Tom (University of Oslo, Norway) email@example.com; Mastekaasa, Arne (University of Oslo, Norway); B»e, Nils (Retired Practitioner); Klepp, Olav Martin (Ulleval Hospital, Norway); Kleiner, Robert J. (Temple University) Rklei26436@aol.com; & Sandanger, Inger (University of Oslo, Norway)
CHANGE AND STABILITY IN LOCAL-COMMUNITY-INTEGRATION AND MENTAL HEALTH
The point of departure is the work of A.H. Leighton about local community integration and its relation to mental health.
The differences between Leighton's approach and the approach that has evolved in our work will be shown in the paper.
In a survey of seven local communities in North Norway (T1, N=960) there were 49 statements about the local community, which allowed the residents to evaluate nine dimensions of the degree of local community integration.
Most of these dimensions were related to mental health, as measured both by symptom scores and by experienced sense of well being.
About eight years later we did a follow-up of the same local communities (T2, n=800).
The seven local communities show different patterns of development and change among these variables from T1 to T2.
Here we will focus on one local community.
In the first study, this local community had the second lowest mean on nervous symptoms, and second highest on well being.
They also scored high on the nine dimensions of community integration, and there were high correlations (T1) between the community dimensions and mental health.
Eight years later (T2) they have significantly more symptoms, and they score lower on seven of the community indexes, significantly reduced on four of them.
We will discuss these changes in terms of the properties of these communities and the changes that took place in this period.
S»rensen, Tom ˝ See Kleiner, Robert J., & Klepp, Olav Martin for Abstracts.
Sousa, Paulo (University of Michigan) firstname.lastname@example.org
EARLY UNDERSTANDING OF ESSENTIALISM AND FOLKBIOLOGY: EVIDENCE FROM BRAZILIAN CHILDREN
In developmental psychology there is a debate concerning the existence of an early understanding of biological kinds, i.e. the existence of folkbiology as an early-developing domain of human thought.
Based on a specific version of a switched-at-birth task elaborated by Scott Atran, Doug Medin, and myself, the present work shows that four-year-old-children from two different regions in Brazil use essentialism when drawing inferences about biological properties.
These findings give support to the hypothesis that folkbiology is an early-developing domain of human thought.
Stiles, Deborah A. (Webster University) email@example.com; Gibbons, Judith L. (Saint Louis University) firstname.lastname@example.org; Baker, Christopher (Webster University); Ito, Chifumi (Webster University); de Silva, Suneetha S. (Rocky Mountain College) email@example.com; & Sebben, Daniel J. (Webster Groves High School)
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE SELF PORTRAITS OF YOUNG ADOLESCENTS FROM FIVE COUNTRIES
The participants in this study were 329 young adolescents from Republic of South Africa, Sri Lanka, the United States of America, Norway, and Japan.
They were 11 - 15 year old students with a mean age of 12.4 and 67% had fathers in professional occupations.
They drew self-portraits and described themselves.
When compared with girls, boys drew self-portraits that showed significantly more physical maturity, more traditional gender roles, and more sports apparel and activities.
Girls were significantly more likely to draw themselves smiling, with other people, in more non-traditional gender roles, and more often portrayed themselves in the future.
Stoller, Paul (West Chester University); & McConatha, Jasmin T. (West Chester University) firstname.lastname@example.org
THE HEALTH CONCERNS AND PRACTICES OF WEST AFRICAN TRADERS IN THE U.S.
This presentation addresses the health concerns, treatment practices, and beliefs of African immigrant men in the United States.
Sixty-two men were interviewed over a six-year period.
Although health concerns were found to vary, documented participants often made use of New York City public hospitals like Bellevue.
Others tended to rely upon street pharmacies, where they were able to buy prescription drugs cheaply (without prescriptions) or they employed alternative treatments such as medicinal herbs made available by itinerant Muslim healers (marabouts).
Sumonwong, Wachiraporn ˝ See Deenan, Aporn for Abstract.
Super, C. M. ˝ See Parmar, Parminder for Abstract.
Takahashi, Akira (Musashino Women's University, Japan) email@example.com
DO SAD ENDINGS OF THE MOVIES NOT UPSET JAPANESE CHILDREN?
Several movie titles have both Japanese and American versions derived from the same children's novel.
A Dog of Flanders, The Little Mermaid and The Little Match Girl are among them and the original novels for these three titles end with the death of the leading characters.
The endings of American films are often changed to happy ones, while Japanese films always follow the original plots.
American parents may avoid scary endings because they put their children to sleep in a different room.
Japanese parents take advantage of sad stories to teach their children sympathy.
Thanee, Sanguan ˝ See Deenan, Aporn for Abstract.
Thomas, Jennifer J. (Wake Forest University); & Best, Deborah L. (Wake Forest University) firstname.lastname@example.org
ADOLESCENT SELF-ESTEEM: A COMPARISON OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN, EUROPEAN-AMERICAN, AND ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE MEXICAN-AMERICAN STUDENTS
Gender and ethnic differences in self-esteem, body-esteem, ethnic identity, and friendship were investigated, with African-American (n=95), European-American (n=134), and Mexican-American (n=39) high school students.
African-Americans had the highest self-esteem and Mexican-American females had the lowest, and there were no differences between European- and Mexican-American males.
Males had higher body-esteem scores than females, with African-American males reporting the highest and Mexican-American females the lowest.
Ethnic identity was correlated with self-esteem for African-American females but not African-American males or Mexican-Americans.
In terms of friendship, Mexican-American males had more cross-sex best friends.
African-American females with more cross-ethnic best friends had lower body-esteem than those with more male friends.
In addition, Mexican-American females with more male friends had higher ethnic identity scores.
Thomsen, Lotte (University of California, Los Angeles) email@example.com; Sidanius, James (University of California, Los Angeles); & Fiske, Alan (University of California, Los Angeles)
MUST INDEPENDENT SELVES STAND OUT BY THINKING THEY ARE BETTER THAN EVERYBODY ELSE? THE INDEPENDENCE OF AMERICAN AND SCANDINAVIAN MODES OF INDEPENDENCE
Must people with independent selves think they are better than everybody else?
That Americans hold false uniqueness bias/ unrealistically positive views of self so that the vast majority of people think they are in very top minority on a range of skills is by now a well-established empirical finding (Taylor & Brown, 1998; Markus & Kitayama, 1991).
Based on ethnographic evidence, we predicted that this is not the case in Scandinavia.
We demonstrate that although Danes score higher on a variety of independence and individualism measures, they do not describe themselves, on average, as being markedly better than their peers.
We further demonstrate that the false uniqueness bias, although related to some (but not all!) measures of independence of self in the US sample, is unrelated to independence of self in our Danish sample.
This thus underscores the need to take the cultural practice of social relations as starting point for understanding how people see themselves rather than the concept or type of self as such.
UcĚn Ek', Edilberto - See Knight, Nicola for Abstract.
Ungar, Maria (Viktor Frankl Institute, Dallas TX) firstname.lastname@example.org
EXPLORING THE USE OF VIKTOR E. FRANKL'S MEANING-ORIENTED THERAPY IN PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH IMMIGRANTS
In many immigrants' experience, a loss of guidance from traditional values and difficulties integrating new cultural values can lead to a sense of frustration and inner emptiness.
In this inner emptiness, unhealthy attitudes, leading to further psychological turmoil, may easily develop and interfere with the normal processes of acculturation, adaptation, personal growth and development.
Responding to this existential frustration and emptiness, called "existential vacuum" is central to Viktor E. Frankl's meaning-oriented therapy.
Through the use of the logotherapeutic techniques of Modification of Attitudes and De-reflection, immigrants' sense of personal value, uniqueness, irreplaceability, and search for meaning can be fostered.
This presentation will rely on case examples to examine ways in which Frankl's logotherapy can be meaningfully applied in psychotherapy with immigrants.
Useem, Bert (University of Mexico) email@example.com; Piehl, Anne (Harvard University); Liedka, Raymond V. (University of New Mexico); & Roberts, Aki (University of New Mexico)
PRISON AND CRIME CONTROL: A CROSS-NATIONAL TEST
Few issues in criminology are debated more than that of whether putting more people in prison reduces the crime rate.
Unlike many debates in criminology, this one has direct policy implications.
Communities can adopt, change, or reject prison policies to reduce crime.
This paper explores the effects of imprisonment on crime rates using pooled time-series data from 17 industrialized countries between 1950 and 1996.
We ask whether countries that put more people in prison, per unit of population, have lower than expected crime rates, controlling for other factors which might influence crime rates such as unemployment, divorce, GNP per capita, and youth population.
We also distinguish between short-term and long-term effects of prison population on crime.
We found that the effects of prison population on crime vary depending on types of crime and the data source used.
Wagner, John D. (University of New Mexico) firstname.lastname@example.org
VALUE OF CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH IN EXPLORING RELATIONS AMONG BEHAVIOR, DIET, AND EVOLUTION
Research of the relations between diet and behavior has tended to focus on western populations.
This focus leads to findings being extrapolated to other peoples of the world, which will often be inaccurate owing to unique ecological conditions.
Incorporating research across cultures is needed and has the potential to illuminate many interesting questions pertaining to the evolution of our species.
Several of these are discussed.
Ward, Colleen (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand) Colleen.Ward@vuw.ac.nz; & Ramakrishnan, Manoharan (University of Akron) email@example.com
FEAR OF LOSING OUT? STUDIES OF KIASU-ISM IN SINGAPORE AND NEW ZEALAND
"Kiasu," literally translated from Hokkien as fear of losing (out), is purportedly a culture specific phenomenon observed in Singapore.
Although its precise nature is still the subject of debate, kiasu behavior is believed to be predicated on social comparison and to incorporate aspects of extreme competitiveness and greed.
The paper presents three studies of kiasu.
The first examines world beliefs or social axioms associated with kiasu behaviors as a means of elucidating the construct.
The second study extends the research to consider the culture-specificity of kiasu-ism by comparing self-reported kiasu behaviors in Singaporean and New Zealand university students.
The final investigation examines the effects of anxiety and scarcity of resources on kiasu behaviors.
Wegner, Elizabeth ˝ See de Silva, Suneetha S. for Abstract.
Weigl, Robert (George Mason University and the Franklin Center, Alexandria VA) Weiglrg@aol.com; Gibbons, Judith L. (Saint Louis University) firstname.lastname@example.org; Gielen, Uwe P. (St. Francis College) email@example.com; & Raybeck, Douglas (Hamilton College) firstname.lastname@example.org
CULTURAL SELF-STUDY: A TOOL FOR TEACHING AND RESEARCH
This program builds from examining impressive benefits of integrating cultural self-study into the classroom presentation of cross-cultural concepts, and suggests reflexive work may be of value in the continuing education of scholars.
Weigl will present concepts and practical approaches emerging from teaching in diverse university settings, and three veteran teacher/scholars will offer comments and caveats and help guide audience discussion.
It is hoped that the program will inspire concrete follow-up: three or four people trying a structured self-study protocol in their classrooms and reporting back as a panel during 2003 SCCR meetings.
The central presentation notes the curious tradition in anthropology and psychology whereby science guides study of cultural others, but a private, haphazard, oral tradition shapes scholar's understanding of their own cultural make-up.
The dramatic effectiveness of structured self-study with university students suggests that highly disciplined reflexivity might enhance the empathic reach, objectivity, and validity of cross-cultural research.
This program will help participants integrate conceptual and experiential aspects of their own work.
Welles-Nystrom, B. ˝ See Parmar, Parminder for Abstract.
Yates, Alayne - See Edman, Jeanne L. for Abstract.
Zvoch, Keith (Albuquerque Public Schools) email@example.com
ACHIEVEMENT GAINS ACROSS THE MIDDLE SCHOOL YEARS: EXAMINING INITIAL STATUS AND GROWTH
A longitudinal analysis of achievement data from a large southwestern school district was conducted to assess and model the growth trajectories of one middle school cohort.
Two patterns emerged.
Consistent with prior investigation, an achievement gap was observed upon entry into middle school (initial status).
Growth trajectories were less predictable.
Minority students and adolescents with limited English skills grew at the same or at a steeper rate than their peers across the middle school years.
Discussion will focus on the distinction between and implications of studying individual status and growth.
Zylics, P. O. ˝ See Parmar, Parminder for Abstract.
See you next year
Charleston, South Carolina
Douglas Raybeck (Hamilton College) firstname.lastname@example.org
Updated on February 4, 2002